Frequently, the method is the desensitization method, which is necessarily used to prevent anaphylactic reactions (see Anaphylaxis) with injections of antibacterial and antitoxic therapeutic and prophylactic sera: 0.1-0.3 ml of serum is injected subcutaneously at first, and after 1-2 hours the rest of the dose.
Uncommon methods (A.M. Bezredka) - methods of desensitization, oral vaccination, immunization with live sensitized vaccines, which have found application in specific prophylaxis and therapy of infectious diseases.
The most common of these is the desensitization method used to prevent anaphylactic reactions (see Anaphylaxis) when anti-toxic, anti-bacterial or antiviral heterogeneous serums are administered for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes (obtained from a horse or other animal). Re-introduction of such serum can cause serum sickness (see) or anaphylactic shock. Desensitization according to Berezka is also necessary when curative serum, purified by various methods from ballast substances, is introduced into the body. It is known that individuals that are hypersensitive to the protein fractions of antitoxic serums (diphtheria, tetanus, etc.) react to their administration with severe shock events. When desensitizing according to the Berezda, a small amount (0.1 ml) of serum is first injected subcutaneously, and then in 1-2 hours the rest of the dose.
The second of the Unpredictable methods, the oral vaccination method, is used against intestinal infections and is based on the Unforeseen concept of so-called local immunity (see Immunity). In the opinion of Freddy, immunity against oral immunization against intestinal infections is acquired through the immunization of sensitive tissue or organ (for example, the intestines with dysentery) and the natural resistance of other tissues and organs. For oral immunization against intestinal infections, Beredka offered a dry vaccine in the form of tablets (three days in a row, 1 tablet containing 100 billion killed microbes). For better absorption of the antigen, bovine bile was used to sensitize the intestine. The method is not widespread.
The third method, proposed by Unable, is active immunization against typhoid and dysentery with live vaccines sensitized with specific immune serum. However, these vaccines have not been tested in a broad epidemiological experience and have not gained widespread use in the practice of protective vaccinations against typhoid fever. See also Immunization.