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Hydrotherapy

Hydrotherapy (synonymous with hydrotherapy) is the external use of water for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Water has a thermal, mechanical and chemical effect on the body. The temperature and hydrostatic pressure of water, as well as the salts dissolved in it, irritate the thermo, bar and chemoreceptors inherent in the skin; volatile and gaseous substances, as well as ions, iodine, bromine, etc., penetrate through the skin and respiratory tract, affecting the receptors of blood vessels and internal organs. The effect of hydrotherapeutic procedures on various organs and systems of the body is carried out by neurohumoral means.

Depending on different water temperatures and methods of application, water procedures have a very diverse effect: they cause redistribution of blood in peripheral vessels and internal organs, contribute to the resorption of chronic inflammation, remove pathological metabolic products, affect the functional state of the nervous system and muscle tone, and more. . Procedures with warm water (t ° 37-39 °) mainly act soothingly, cold (t ° below 20 °) and cool (t ° 20-33 °) tone up the body, temper it. Due to this versatile action, hydrotherapy is used in many diseases.

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Technique of water procedures. Common douche. A naked patient is poured with 2–3 buckets of water (Fig. 1), the procedure is carried out daily for 4–6 weeks, gradually lowering the water temperature from 34–33 ° to 22–20 °. The duration of the procedure is 1-2 minutes. After dousing the patient wipe the sheet.

The procedure has a stimulating and tonic effect, increases metabolism.

Partial dousing, usually with cold water (t ° 16-20 °), is carried out from a rubber hose, jug or watering can.

Not all body is poured, but only some part of it: the back of the head (Fig. 2) - in order to improve breathing and blood circulation; arms and legs (fig., 3) —when sweating, vasomotor disorders, varicose veins , etc .; a back (fig., 4) - at neurasthenic states, etc.

General rubdowns. A naked patient standing in a basin with warm water is wrapped in a sheet of cloth moistened with water t ° 32–30 ° (by the end of the course of treatment t ° 20–18 °) and well wrung; quickly and vigorously rubbed over the sheet (Fig. 5) to a feeling of warmth. The procedure lasts 2–3 minutes, then wipe the patient with a dry sheet. Sometimes after wiping it, 1-2-2 buckets of water are poured at a temperature 1-2 ° lower than the previous one, then they are wiped dry (rubdown with a douche). The patient can carry out the procedure independently, wiping the whole body in parts in a certain sequence with a sponge or a special mitten, and then wiping it dry with a towel.

Partial rubdown spend weakened patients. The patient lies in bed, covered with a blanket (fig., B), alternately first opening one leg, then the other, arm, back, etc., apply water and a wrung-out towel moistened with water and carefully rub it over it (you can make a special rubdown mitten, dipped in water), and then wipe dry and cover again with a blanket. To enhance the irritating effect of the skin, you can add salt, alcohol, and hygienic cologne to the water. The procedure has a refreshing and tonic effect, improves blood circulation and increases metabolism.

Wet wraps (wraps). Having laid a large blanket on the couch and a sheet moistened with water t ° 30-25 ° (rarely lower) and well wrung out from above, the naked patient is wrapped first in a sheet and then in a blanket (fig. 7). Depending on the duration of the procedure, it can have a stimulating and antipyretic (10–15 min.), Calming (30–40 min.) And diaphoretic (50–60 min. And more) effects.

Soul. Water supply of different temperature and pressure to the shower installations is carried out by the shower chair (see). For jet souls (Fig., 8) include Charcot's and Scottish souls.

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Charcot's douche: a water jet is directed at a patient standing at a distance of 3–3.5 m from the shower chair. First, it is doused with a fan-jet from all sides, then a compact stream is applied to separate parts of the body, starting from the leg of the back. At the same time it is necessary to avoid a jet of water on the face, head, mammary glands, and genitals . Finish the procedure with a fan jet. The water temperature at the beginning is 35–32 °, every day or every other day it decreases by 1 °, by the end of treatment it is brought to 20–15 °. Pressure 1.5-3 am, procedure duration 1-5 minutes Charcot's douche is prescribed mainly for functional diseases of the nervous system, in combination with other procedures in the treatment of metabolic diseases and especially for obesity. Scottish shower: the patient is alternately directed from two hoses to a hot (t ° 37–45 °, for 30–40 sec.) And cold (t ° 25–10 °, for 15–20 sec.) Water jet. So repeat 4-6 times. Apply it mainly as a local procedure: on the stomach (with obesity, atonic constipation ); on the lower back (with myositis of the lumbar muscles, with lumbosacral radiculitis ). A circular shower (fig. 10) has a significant irritating effect. The rain shower (fig. 9) and the needle-like soul, assigned primarily as a refreshing and tonic procedure, have a lesser irritant effect; held under slight pressure. Rising shower (fig., 11): the patient sits on a tripod with a ring-shaped seat, under which the tip of the rain shower is installed, facing upwards. Jets of water (t ° 37-20 °) fall on the crotch . Procedures lasting 2 to 5 minutes. spend daily for a course of 15-20 procedures. It is used in the treatment of hemorrhoids , prostatitis , proctitis , etc.

Steam shower (fig., 12): steam under pressure of 1-1.5 am is directed through the handpiece to a patient located at a distance of 0.5-1 m. The temperature of the vapor at the skin of the patient is 40-50 °. Procedures lasting 10-15 minutes. carried out daily, in the course of treatment 12-15 procedures.

Saunas (Finnish dry air baths) are specially equipped rooms with high temperature (70–90 °) and low humidity (relative humidity 10–15%), in which hygienic and partly medical procedures are carried out.

Water procedures also include baths (see).

Indications: cold and cool water procedures are used as a general tonic to stimulate the nervous and cardiovascular systems, increase metabolism in obesity, with the aim of training and hardening ; warm - for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, with lesions of the musculoskeletal system, peripheral nervous system, etc .; procedures with water of the so-called indifferent temperature (34-36 °) - with an increase in the excitability of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, disorders of vascular tone, to combat skin itchiness, etc .; procedures with hot water - in violation of certain types of metabolism, as well as some kidney diseases.

Contraindications: acute inflammatory processes, advanced stages of atherosclerosis and hypertensive disease , severe decompensation of cardiovascular activity, expression, and frequently recurring bouts of angina pectoris , myocardial infarction , stroke , malignant tumors, benign at the tendency to growth, bleeding and hemoptysis, tuberculosis in the destruction phase in the presence of a temperature reaction, infectious diseases, some skin (weeping eczema , pemphigus , pustular diseases), etc.

The role of paramedical personnel in hydrotherapy is to control the preparation and dosage of water procedures by junior medical personnel (bathhouse attendants, showers, etc.) in accordance with the prescription of the doctor, in monitoring the tolerability of the procedures, the response to the procedure, in rendering emergency medical care first aid, in registration and accounting of water procedures, in the supervision of the sanitary condition of the water treatment facility. See also Balneotherapy, Balneotherapy .

Water treatment
Water treatments . 1–4 — douche: 1 — general, 2 — nape, 3 — legs, 4 — backs; 5 and 6 - rubdown: 5 - general (a and b - successive stages), 6 - partial, with a special mitten (a - hands, b - legs); 7 - total wet wrap (a - d - successive stages); 8 - jet shower (a - control panel, biv - the impact of a fan jet); 9 - rain shower; 10 (a and b) - circular shower; 11 - ascending shower; 12 - steam shower.