Fungal diseases of the skin (synonym for ringworms, fungi ) are diseases caused by various pathogenic fungi. Sources of infection are animals, plants, sick people and objects infected by them. Penetrating through the skin, mucous membranes, the infection can spread through the lymphatic and blood vessels (deep mycoses). Various comorbidities (metabolic and endocrine disorders), vitamin deficiencies reduce body resistance and contribute to the occurrence of fungal skin diseases. People who work in agriculture (due to constant contact with animals and plants) or in conditions where the skin is subjected to constant maceration are more often affected.
Fungal diseases of the skin can be divided into 4 groups.
1. Keratomycosis. Pathogens parasitize in the superficial regions of the stratum corneum of the epidermis or the hair cuticle without penetrating into the medullary substance. The inflammatory reaction of the dermis is usually absent. These dermatomycoses are low contagious, they include pityriasis versicolor, erythrasma (see), pedera, axillary trichomycosis.
2. Epidermomycosis. Pathogens parasitize in the deeper layers of the stratum corneum of the epidermis and cause an inflammatory reaction from other layers of the skin. Nail plates may be affected. Diseases of this group are contagious (see Epidermofitiya , Candidiasis).Go
3. Trichomycosis. Pathogenic fungi parasitize in the stratum corneum, causing an inflammatory skin reaction; The cuticle and internal divisions of the hair are often affected. Diseases of this group are very contagious, they include trichophytosis (see), microsporia (see), scab (see Favus ).
4. Deep mycoses. Pathogenic fungi parasitize in the deeper layers of the skin, in the subcutaneous tissue, causing a chronic inflammatory reaction of a granulomatous nature. Infection can affect the lymph nodes, bones, muscles, internal organs. These diseases include: blastomycosis (see), actinomycosis (see), sporotrichosis (see), chromomycosis (see), histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, etc.
Diagnosis of fungal skin diseases is based on clinical data and on the results of the following research methods: 1) microscopic examination of unstained preparations obtained from a drop of pus , smears from mucous membranes, scrapings from the peripheral edge of the lesion of the skin, hair; 2) cultivation of pathogenic fungi on artificial nutrient media ; 3) histological examination (biopsy); 4) immunobiological examination, especially with deep mycoses.
The treatment of the fungus depends on the clinical form and location of the lesion and to a lesser extent on the type of pathogen. Locally prescribed: aniline dyes, Lugol solution, ointments containing sulfur , resorcinol , mercury compounds, tar; Auxiliary importance is washing, the use of keratolytic (softening) and exfoliating agents, removal of the affected nail plates, hair removal . Inside designate: potassium iodide and antifungal antibiotics ( griseofulvin , nystatin, etc.). See some types of mycoses.
Prevention : special attention should be paid to highly contagious forms of fungal skin diseases (trichophytosis, microsporia, favus ), in the prevention of which a large role belongs to the paramedic. For the early detection of such patients, it is necessary to conduct regular preventive examinations (once every two to three months) of children's groups, contacts survey, inspection of the attendants and all children entering children's institutions. All objects with which the patient came into contact should be disinfected or destroyed, all lost or removed hair of patients should be burned. Children with mycosis in children’s institutions are allowed only after clinical and bacteriological monitoring. Due to the frequent infection with microsporia and trichophytosis from cats, dogs, pigs, horses and other animals, it is necessary to fight against mycoses in animals. The importance of sanitary and hygienic control in public baths, swimming pools, hairdressers and therapeutic baths in the resorts, as well as health education of the population.