Hypotension, or hypotension - is a reduction in blood pressure. The lower limit of the norm of systolic pressure is 100-105 mm Hg. Art. for men and 95-100 mm for women, diastolic - 60-65 mm Hg. Art.
Hypotonia is sometimes observed in practically healthy people (for example, in childhood and adolescence, in a hot climate, in sports ). This is a physiological, or adaptive, hypotension.
As a manifestation of the pathological state of hypotension can develop suddenly or gradually and often unnoticeably. In the first case, hypotension is one of the symptoms of acute vascular insufficiency (fainting, collapse). In the second case, hypotension is observed as a symptom of various diseases (for example, pulmonary tuberculosis, peptic ulcer disease , certain diseases of the endocrine system, etc.) - secondary, or symptomatic, hypotension. As an independent disease, hypotension develops as a result of violations of the functions of the neuroendocrine apparatus that regulates vascular tone - primary, essential, or neurocirculatory, hypotension. The latter often begins to develop already in adolescence or at a young age, in a number of cases as a result of infectious diseases, neuropsychic or physical overstrain, suffered traumas of the central nervous system, exposure to occupational hazards (small doses of ionizing radiation, nitroso compounds of benzene , etc.).The
In addition to lowering blood pressure, with neurocirculatory hypotension, there are headaches of various localization, duration and intensity, dizziness , sometimes general weakness, irritability, emotion, sleep disorders, sweating, cold or even numbness in the fingers and toes, sometimes palpitations , less pain in the area the apex of the heart (often associated with negative emotions ). There is a marked weakening of adaptation to a change in the position of the body (rapid rising from the bed), which is expressed by dizziness, "darkening in the eyes, " and sometimes a syncope. An objective study reveals the lability of the pulse and blood pressure (in the early phases of the disease), often the presence of systolic (functional) noise at the apex of the heart, the violation of reactions from the vessels, detected plethysmography (see), capillaroscopy (see), etc., (see), acrocyanosis, thermoregulation disorders, sweating, and other indicators, indicating a violation of the function of mainly the cardiovascular and nervous systems. However, violations of function and other systems, in particular digestion , can be detected.
Treatment and prophylactic measures for neurocirculatory hypotension should be aimed at strengthening the body as a whole, its nervous system. Of particular importance are the correct alternation of work and leisure, physical education, sports. Given that hypotension often develops already in adolescence, physical conditioning of the organism, the inculcation of work skills, fighting harmful habits (smoking, alcohol) are of great importance.
Treatment should be comprehensive and include the use of physiotherapy procedures, medications and exercise therapy . Effective are hydrotherapy , ultraviolet irradiation. From medicines prescribe caffeine (0.1 g 2-3 times a day), caffeine with valerian, secyrinine (0.4% solution of 10-20 drops 2 times a day), tinctures of Chinese magnolia vine, ginseng , levisee and zamaniha.
Physical exercises are recommended: therapeutic gymnastics , morning hygienic gymnastics, walking, swimming , skiing , skating , tennis, etc. The main in curative gymnastics are general development exercises, respiratory exercises in combination with exercises for balance, coordination and dynamic effort; in a small volume you can use a static force. It is necessary to perform exercises at an average pace, often change the starting positions, engage in 30-35 minutes daily.
It is advisable to periodically send patients with hypotension in the day or night dispensary, and on vacation - in a sanatorium (in the area of residence of patients) or rest homes . Treatment (sanatorium or outpatient) at resorts with carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, radon waters, as well as climatic, mainly seaside, resorts are subject to patients with essential hypotension.