Degassing is a set of measures aimed at neutralizing (removing) toxic substances at various environmental objects. Depending on the method of degassing can be partial and complete. Partial degassing is the neutralization (removal) of toxic substances only in those areas of objects with which a person comes into contact in the process. Full outgassing is carried out after the troops and civil defense units carry out combat missions and provides for the complete decontamination of agents at the facilities being processed, precluding the possibility of subsequent destruction of personnel. Small objects, personal weapons in all cases are subjected to complete degassing.
All objects contaminated with persistent toxic agents (V-gases, chemical agents such as soman, mustard gas) in a droplet-liquid or aerosol state are subjected to degassing. The contamination of weapons, equipment, terrain in the summer remains for several days, in the winter - up to several weeks, months. The persistence of infection depends on the type of toxic substances, the density of infection, meteorological conditions and the depth of penetration of toxic substances into various materials. When contaminated with vapors of organophosphorus toxic substances (sarin, soman, V-gases), uniforms, tents and other porous materials, they are also subject to degassing.Go
For degassing weapons and equipment, medical equipment used degassing substances, solvents and detergents.
As technical means for degassing weapons and equipment, auto-pouring stations (APC), various special degassing kits and devices are used; Machines and vehicles are processed efficiently with hot gas jets. Chemically active substances that quickly enter into chemical interaction with toxic substances form nontoxic compounds (hexachloromelamine, dichloramine, caustic soda , ammonia water, calcium hydrochloride calcium hypochlorite - DTC HA, bleach ) as degassing agents. Most often degassing substances are used in the form of the following solutions.
Degasser solution L ° 1 - 5% solution of hexachlormelamine or 10% solution of dichloramine in dichloroethane. It is intended for the degassing of V-gases, mustard gas. Solution No. 1 is prepared shortly before use. Decontaminating solution No. 2-AH (ammonium-alkaline) - an aqueous solution of 2% caustic soda, 5% monoethanolamine and 20% ammonia. Intends for degassing of soman-type toxic substances. Aqueous suspensions or water slurries of the DTS CC, water slurries of bleach are used for degassing weapons and equipment contaminated with V-gases and mustard gas. However, they cause rusting of metal surfaces; therefore, the degassed objects should be washed with water, wiped dry and lubricated with appropriate lubricant.
Degassing of weapons, equipment, medical equipment is carried out by wiping contaminated surfaces with a degassing solution.
In the absence of degassing solutions, aqueous solutions of detergents and solvents (dichloroethane, gasoline , kerosene, etc.) can be used to treat them. In cases where the type of agent is unknown, contaminated weapons, equipment, and medical equipment are degassed with solution number 1 and then solution number 2-ay.
Decontamination of medical equipment, uniforms, equipment, shoes and personal protective equipment is carried out in one of the following ways: 1) by boiling, 2) by steam-air-ammonia mixture, 3) by steam and ammonia mixture, 4) by washing, 5) by ventilation. Degassing by boiling is based on the ability of an OM to decompose when exposed to water and high temperature. To neutralize the resulting acidic degassing products, a 2-4% soda solution is prepared. This method is used for the degassing of metal medical instruments, cotton fabrics, rubber products and rubberized fabric. After processing, the products must be dried and ventilated.Go
The degassing of the steam-air-ammonia mixture is carried out at special auto-degassing stations and by the vapor-ammonia mixture in the bedding plants. When exposed to hot air (steam) with ammonia, decomposition of the chemical agent occurs with the formation of non-toxic products. All types of property may be degassed with a vapor-air-ammonia mixture; steam-ammonia mixture can not be degassed fur and leather products.
As a result of degassing, washing with the use of detergents and high temperature results in hydrolysis (decomposition) of the chemical agent. In this way, cotton fabrics and cotton clothing are degassed.
When infected with uniforms in pairs (but not drops) of poisonous substances, degassing is used by airing. In summer, at t ° 15–20 °, degassing by airing lasts about 3 hours, in winter time - 6–8 hours. This method is based on the destruction of organic matter in natural conditions under the influence of temperature, moisture and other environmental factors. It is used in the presence of open, well-ventilated areas of land at a considerable distance from populated areas.
When degassing wooden, rubber, leather products, as well as tarpaulin, tents and rubber objects covered with paints, it should be noted that organic substances are quickly absorbed by these materials, therefore degassing should be carried out within the first hour after infection; degassed objects may be dangerous for some time, they need to be aerated before the OM is completely removed.
The reliability of the degassing of items of medical and sanitary property, uniforms, equipment, shoes and personal protective equipment by the above methods is ensured only with strict adherence to the degassing mode.
Decontamination of the terrain is carried out with aqueous suspensions of DTS CC and bleach using autocasting stations (APC), and, in their absence, with degassing solutions No. 1 and No. 2.
In certain parts of the area, contaminated soil can be removed mechanically.
In the case of contamination with food poisoning substances , degassing consists in removing the surface contaminated layer and thoroughly cultivating them. Products usually consumed without cooking, destroy. The decision on the suitability of products for use is made only after special investigations on chemicals in laboratories.
Decontamination of contaminated water is carried out by filtering it through special filters, by distillation and boiling. The most reliable way is to disinfect water using filters sorbing agents.
Water degassing can be carried out using the equipment of water supply stations, autofiltration stations (MAPS), universal wearable filter (UNF), fabric-coal filter (TUF) and other technical means.
Distillation and boiling are used for the degassing of small amounts of water.