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Depression

Depression is a depressed, dreary mood (dysthymia), inhibition of associative processes, speech and movements. Depth of depression can be expressed in varying degrees - from a slight decrease in mood (hypothymia) to severe depression. The intensity of perception in depressed patients is reduced: the surrounding seems to them gray, monotonous; lived life is estimated as wrong, wrong, the present is gloomy and terrible, the future is hopeless. The circle of perceptions of the patients is narrowed, all their attention is focused on their own experiences, on the severity of their condition. Associative processes are slowed down, any mental strain seems heavy, patients complain of a memory loss. The motivations for the activity are weakened, the patients lie for a long time or sit in a monotonous pose, head down. The speech is quiet, laconic; movements are slow; mournful facial expression. Patients are disturbed by the feeling of their somatic condition. They experience a feeling of impotence, weakness, unpleasant sensations in the heart, pain in the head, legs. Appetite is absent. Sleep upset. There are constipation. Observed weight loss, a decrease in tissue turgor. Depressive patients look aged. Depression fluctuates in its intensity: in the mornings it is most pronounced, it decreases in the evening.

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The main options for depressive syndrome are as follows.
1. Depression with delirium of self-blame, which, along with the disorders described above, is characterized by the development of ideas of self-deprecation, self-blame, sinfulness. The patients claim that they committed various heinous crimes before the family and before the society; they have suicidal thoughts and tendencies. As evidence of their guilt, patients cite memories of unseemly deeds committed by them in the past; in some cases for delusional ideas there is no such justification.
2. Anesthetic depression, in which there is the so-called psychic anesthesia: patients do not experience any emotional reaction - neither joy, nor grief, nor attachment to loved ones; the environment is perceived without any emotional relation to it, and patients are aware of this lack of emotional reactions and are extremely painful.
3. Agitated depression, which is characterized by a combination of anguish with the monotonous content of thinking (depressive monoidism) and motor stimulation. Patients are fussy, constantly rushing about in the ward, groaning, complaining, asking to kill them, because they are not worthy of life. They say they will never recover, blame themselves for being sick. With agitated depression, Kotar syndrome can develop. Crazy ideas of Kotara syndrome are characterized by a fantastic character of enormity: the patients claim that cities and countries have died, the whole globe, consider themselves doomed to endlessly and endlessly tormented in the universe, they are waiting for such tortures that no one has experienced. Sometimes this nonsense can take a hypochondriac character, and then the patients claim that they have a void inside, no brain, their insides are rotten, the food falls, “like a bag”.
4. Depression with a stupor (or a sub-stopper), in which the patients barely move, barely answer the questions, say one whisper, less often two words. On his face a frozen expression of sorrow.
5. Psychasthenic depression is characterized by decreased mood and motor and mental inhibition is not expressed; indecision, obsessive doubts in their abilities, sometimes hypochondria.
6. Hypochondriac depression. Patients complain of discomfort, they express fears that they have cancer, tuberculosis or some other serious illness, and are often examined in hospitals. In some cases, vegetative disorders occupy a prominent place in the clinical picture: heart attack, sweating, nausea, vomiting, etc. Low mood, associative and motor inhibition are expressed slightly. All the attention of patients focused on the discomfort that they experience.

Depressive syndrome occurs in various mental illnesses. The clinic of the depressive phase of manic-depressive psychosis corresponds to the typical depressive syndrome in its various variants. Depression can be the initial manifestation of mental changes in arteriosclerosis, the vascular form of syphilis of the brain, senile psychosis, progressive paralysis. Depression (often with atypical manifestations) can occur with somatogenic psychosis, acute and protracted, as well as during schizophrenia, especially with its periodic forms. Thus, in organic processes, depressive syndrome is complicated by memory disorders, asthenia and paranoid disorders, and in the schizophrenic process it is usually complicated by the addition of lethargy, acute delusions, and catatonic symptoms. A depressive syndrome may develop as a result of treatment with neuroleptic drugs (so-called aminazin depression). Depression can also occur as a reaction to trauma - reactive (psychogenic) depression.

Depression (in translation - “crush”, “suppress”) is a mental illness that is characterized by a decrease in mood, inability to enjoy, cognitive and motor impairments. A person with depression loses interest in life, in his activities, his self-esteem is reduced.

Usually, depression develops after a stress or protracted stressful situation. Very often, the onset of the development of depression is confused with a bad mood. So that depression does not worsen and does not become chronic, it is necessary to understand the causes of its development.

Signs and symptoms of depression

Typical symptoms of depression are:

  • Reduced mood for a long time (more than 2 weeks);
  • Favorite activities become uninteresting;
  • Sense of anxiety;
  • Guilt;
  • Fear;
  • Reduced self-esteem;
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Difficulty concentrating;
  • Thoughts of death;
  • Changes in appetite;
  • Sleep disturbances (insomnia, hypersomnia).

Types of depression

The onset of the development of depression is characterized by the appearance of a primary depressive episode, which can be mild, moderate and severe. Often, mild depression is confused with sadness, irritability. Depression of moderate severity already sufficiently complicates the life of a person. In severe depression, psychosis, delusions and hallucinations can develop.

There are the following types of depression:

  • Dysthymia is a prolonged decrease in mood, which is characterized by chronic decrease in mood over several years.
  • Cyclothymia is a more prolonged form of depression, when mood changes occur from mild mania to mild depression.
  • Endogenous depression. These include depression in schizophrenia, bipolar, monopolar, recurrent, and others.
  • Exogenous depression is caused by external factors, including neurotic, reactive, and asthenic depression.
  • Endoreactive dysthymia is a prolonged depressive state, in the development of which extrinsic stressful factors play.
  • Separately, it is worth to highlight somatogenic depressions that develop as a result of various internal diseases.

Treatment of depression

It is important to keep in mind: depression does not go away by itself, it is necessary to fight it. The doctors of the Mental Health Clinic have over 10 years of experience in the effective treatment of depression . Timely and qualified psychotherapist help is the key to returning to a full life.

We give some tips to combat depression:

  • Play sports. Physical activity has a positive effect on the body as a whole, improves mood. Take walks in the fresh air;
  • Eat right. Eat a healthy, balanced diet, eat more fruits and vegetables, drink vitamins;
  • An effective way against depression is a healthy full sleep. Also, make it a habit to go to bed and get up at the same time;
  • Come up with goals and go to them. Do not set yourself impossible tasks, start small and write down your achievements in a diary;
  • Meet and chat with people. Attend theaters, cinemas, exhibitions, travel.

If you are unable to cope with depression on your own, and your condition only worsens, we advise you to seek help from a specialist. In the process of treating depression using pharmaco-and psychotherapy.