Deratization is the extermination of rodents (see), harmful to humans in epidemiological and economic terms.
Deratization in cities and villages of Russia is carried out by departments and departments of preventive disinfection of sanitary-epidemiological stations .
Deratization includes preventive and extermination measures. In the settlements prevention consists of sanitary and construction and technical measures, and in the field - of agrotechnical. Fighter actions are composed of chemical, mechanical and biological methods.
Sanitary and construction-technical measures ensure cleanliness in the premises and on the land plots adjacent to the buildings. To do this, constantly carry out cleaning of premises and territory, garbage and food garbage is collected in iron boxes, tanks or buckets with lids. Food is stored in a container inaccessible to rodents.
On the paths of movement of rodents create various obstacles. Doors in the basements should always be fitted and tightly closed, gaps in the floors, walls, entry points of electrical wires, water and gas pipes sealed with cement or iron, the ventilation openings are protected with a metal grid with cells of 0.5 cm.Go
Currently, drugs that repel rodents ( repellents ) are being used to protect homes, wires in the ground, etc. For this purpose, they recommend dimethyldithiocarbamic acid zinc salt, shale oil, albichtol, etc.
Agrotechnical measures are aimed at worsening the habitat of rodents, depriving them of shelters and food in the field. To do this, spend spring processing of zyabi, vapors and fields under the spring, systematically destroying weeds; Harvesting and threshing produce in a timely manner, destroying unused remains of straw and haulm.
Fighter actions . When the chemical method is used poison bait and sometimes gases. For poison baits, the best poisons are: rat, zinc phosphide, zoocoumarin, ratdan and fluoroacetamide. For the manufacture of bait often use breadcrumbs from gray wheat bread (for rats and mice), grain and various cereals (for mice), grain and vegetables (for field rodents). In dry rooms, water is sprayed with rats, zookumarinom, ratdinan, in places with high humidity - paraffin briquettes (poisoned bait, filled with paraffin). Along with the use of poisoned baits, dusting of burrows and rodents' tracks by zookumarin and ratindan is carried out.
For the simultaneous destruction of rodents and their ectoparasites, they use systemic poisons (fluoroacetamide) or combination baits (zinc phosphide with DDT).
Gases are used on ships, in grain warehouses, for processing railway cars and rodents burrows in the field. Cyan, chloropicrin, sulfur dioxide and methyl bromide are used.
With the mechanical method for the destruction of rodents, various fishing gear (traps and traps) are installed along the walls and not far from the holes.
The biological method involves the use of bacterial cultures from a group of Salmonella and natural enemies of rodents (predators and birds). Nowadays, a combination bait consisting of a bacterial culture and a rat or zoocumarin (bactocoumarin) is being increasingly used.
Under urban conditions, continuous systematic disinfestation is most effective, during which planned treatment of all urban buildings is carried out during the year. In small settlements, it is allowed to systematically process only the objects most populated by rodents, and, according to epidemic indications, there is a continuous deratization. See also Deratisfactory.