Dermatitis is a disease of the skin (mainly inflammatory) that occurs under the influence of various external factors (physical, chemical, mechanical, etc.). The presence of an exogenous stimulus is the main condition for the occurrence of dermatitis, unlike toksidermiy (see).
There are acute and chronic forms of dermatitis. A characteristic feature of acute dermatitis is its occurrence at the site of application of the stimulus, after the cessation of which the reverse development of the inflammatory process begins. Dermatitis is accompanied by a sensation of burning, soreness, heat, itching. The leading clinical symptoms are pronounced swelling and redness, sharply delimited from healthy skin, with no tendency to spread. Bubbles or bubbles may appear on this background; opening, they form erosive areas, the surface of which shrinks into crusts. Under the action of high or low temperatures, concentrated acids may develop necrosis, followed by the formation of a scab, ulcer, scar.Go
Chronic dermatitis is caused by prolonged exposure to relatively weak stimuli (rubbing with a bandage, corset, scratching due to itching) and is characterized by slight redness, pigmentation , slight infiltration of the skin, thickening and peeling.
Dermatitis can be artifactual (simple) and allergic.
Artistic dermatitis occurs immediately from the effects of obligate stimuli, i.e., those that necessarily cause dermatitis (for example, electric current, strong acids or alkalis , etc.).
Allergic dermatitis occurs only in people who have increased sensitivity (sensitization) to certain stimuli (drugs or chemicals, sunlight, etc.). Such stimuli are called optional (optional), since allergic dermatitis develops only when they are re-exposed to the skin, due to the resulting sensitization of the body (see Allergy ). Clinically, allergic dermatitis is characterized by an eczema-like picture and a long incubation period (from 5-6 days to several weeks). Secondary allergic rashes may occur.
Actinic dermatitis arises from the action of ultraviolet rays (solar or artificial). On the open areas of the skin after 3-6 hours. after the action of the sun's rays, edematous erythema appears, accompanied by a sensation of burning or itching and reaching a maximum after 12-24 hours. In more severe cases, bubbles and bubbles appear on the erythematous background, after opening which erosions are formed, leaving pigmentation after healing. There may be necrotic ulcerative sites that heal the scar; common disorders are often observed: malaise, fever, etc. Repeated and prolonged (for many years) exposure to the sun, even in people with no sensitization to ultraviolet rays, causes skin changes in open areas (face, neck, forearms and rear of hands): persistent pigmentation , dryness, loss of elasticity, wrinkles.Go
Treatment : in cases of acute inflammation, apply boric, resorcinol or other lotions (see) for 2-3 days, then corticosteroid ointments (sinalar, oxycort, etc.); in the absence of soak and edema, Unna cream (lanolin, Vaseline, 20.0 g each, distilled water, 10.0 g), corticosteroid ointments. Prevention : people with hypersensitivity of the skin to the sun should avoid exposure to the sun, wear wide-brimmed hats, use protective ointments with quinine , salol , para-aminobenzoic acid, creams "Ray", "Spring", etc. When using ultraviolet rays for therapeutic purposes in advance determine - the sensitivity of the skin biodosimeter.
The electric current dermatitis is characterized by tissue necrosis in the current area, progressing within a few days after an electric shock , the absence of an inflammatory reaction, painlessness, a slow and sluggish flow. Hair remains unaffected. The principle of treatment is to protect the damaged skin from any external influences, therefore, apply frame dressings. Surgical removal of necrotic masses, as well as the imposition of dressings and ointments is contraindicated.
Prevention : compliance with technical rules of protection when working with electric current.