Child mortality is the mortality of children under one year of age. Child mortality is a conditional term for the number of children who died during the first year of life, that is, who were born alive and did not live to be a year. The number of stillbirths and deaths during the first week of life per 1000 live and dead (perinatal mortality) is analyzed separately.
The indicator of infant mortality is the ratio of the number of children who have died over a certain period to 1 year of age to the number of births during the same time, expressed as a percentage or per thousand. Taking into account the fact that among the children who died in a given year under the age of 1 year there are children born in the previous year, the infant mortality rate is calculated by the formula:
The number of dead children under 1 year old in a given year is x1000 and is divided into 1/3 of those born alive last year + 2/3 born alive in a given year.
In tsarist Russia, the infant mortality rate in 1913 was 269 ° / °° . During the years of Soviet power, the infant mortality rate has dropped to 26 ° / °° , i.e., more than 10 times. The main factors behind the sharp decline in child mortality are a significant increase in the material well-being and culture of the population, expansion of the health care network, advances in medical science, and special state measures for the protection of motherhood and childhood (see).The
The largest share of deaths in the first year of a child’s life is in the first month, in the first month - in the first week, in the first week - in the first day of life.
Currently, there are no sharp seasonal fluctuations in child mortality, which took place in pre-revolutionary Russia, but small summer and autumn-winter rises persist, which are mainly due to gastrointestinal diseases in the first case and pneumonia in the second.
The main factors affecting child mortality are as follows. 1. Premature birth . Premature babies die 15–20 times more often than full-term ones. 2. Postponed diseases of the newborn, especially pneumonia, in the first 3 months of life. 3. The state of health of the mother during pregnancy and childbirth. Cardiovascular diseases, liver diseases, kidneys, infectious diseases of the mother pose a serious threat to the fetus. Of the complications of pregnancy, late toxicosis most adversely affect the health of the child. 4. Mother's age and serial number of birth. The most favorable outcome for childbirth is the mother's age of 20-24 years for the first birth and 25-29 years for the second. 5. The level of the family's sanitary culture. The low sanitary culture of parents caring for a child has a negative effect on his health ( pneumonia and gastrointestinal diseases are particularly unfavorable for sick children under these conditions). 6, Quality of medical care for women and children.
In the struggle to reduce child mortality, medical and preventive measures are of great importance. They are carried out along with doctors and paramedical workers. The role of paramedical staff in this respect is greatest in the countryside.
Regular observation of a child up to one year, the organization of proper feeding and hygienic care, elimination of harmful household factors, conducted mainly by a nurse, are among the most important measures in raising a healthy child (see. Consultations).