Childhood paralysis is a motor impairment that occurs as a result of damage to the nervous system, which is found at the birth of a child or manifests itself in the first months of life. In the origin of childhood paralysis, intrauterine infections and intoxications , birth trauma , infections and injuries in young children are of great importance. Changes in the nervous system in childhood paralysis do not progress, have a residual (residual) character. Pediatric paralysis is characterized by a tendency to gradually improve with the age of the patient. There are cerebral paralysis and peripheral paralysis .
Cerebral palsy is characterized by symptoms of damage to the pyramidal tract and subcortical nodes. There are the following forms of cerebral palsy.
Fig. 1. Little disease: rice. 1a - spastic paralysis of the lower extremities; rice 16 - spastic paralysis of the upper and lower extremities.
Fig. 2. Peripheral paralysis of the right hand.
Fig. 3. Therapeutic gymnastics with cerebral palsy. Relaxation of the muscles of the lower limbs with support on the arms.
Fig. 4. Exercise with a load on the upper limbs.
Little's disease, or spastic diplegia, occurs during birth trauma and is characterized by spastic paralysis of the limbs, often lower, less often upper and lower (Fig. 1). Severe symptoms of the disease are observed from the first days of life. Children with bathing and swaddling show an increased muscle tone , manifested in resistance to passive movements, stiffness. Lighter forms may occur later, by 5-6 months. of life. In these cases, children have a certain position of the limbs: the hips are turned inward, the knees are pressed to each other. Children begin to walk late; feet touch the floor only with fingers, legs are rearranged with great difficulty, often cross, knees rub against each other. Both legs when trying to get up or lie down are set in motion simultaneously. The tendon reflexes are elevated, but sometimes they cannot be caused due to a sharp increase in muscle tone. For the same reason, pathological reflexes may be absent. The psyche is often not changed. In some cases, combinations of Little's disease with a decrease in intelligence are possible.
Cerebral hemiplegia occurs more often as a result of encephalitis, injuries suffered at an early age. With the development of cerebral hemiplegia on the background of encephalitis after an acute period that lasts several days, the convulsions cease, the child’s consciousness is restored and paralysis of one half of the body is detected, gradually adopting a pronounced spastic character (see Paralysis, paresis ). The arm is brought to the body, bent at the elbow, the hand is lowered, pierced, clenched into a fist. The leg is bent at the knee , the foot is lowered. Tendon reflexes are increased, there are pathological reflexes.
Often, the cranial nerves are also affected; with the defeat of the oculomotor nerves, strabismus is noted, the facial nerve is a skewed face, etc.
Children's pseudobulbar palsy is characterized by difficulty sucking and swallowing and is manifested from the first days of a child's life. In the future, violations of chewing, lip and tongue movements, facial muscles, with the damage of the circular muscles of the mouth, the child can not close the mouth .
In the spastic form of childhood paralysis, muscle hypertension , hyperreflexia, and pyramidal symptoms predominate.
With the prevalence of extrapyramidal phenomena, dystonia of the muscles, athetoid-type hyperkinesis, stiffness, often - violent crying and laughter are observed.
For the whole group of infantile cerebral paralysis, a gradual improvement in motor functions is characteristic, although there may not be a full recovery.