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Orphanage

An orphanage is a government institution designed to raise children who have lost their parents or lost contact with them, to raise children of single mothers who wish to be placed in an orphanage, and also to raise children who have no necessary conditions for this (the parents’s illness , deprivation of their parental rights for other reasons).

Children brought up in orphanages are fully supported by the state. There are several types of orphanages: pre-school, school, mixed, special, and also orphanages for the disabled. In preschool orphanages, children are brought up from the age of 3–4 to 7 years old, then transferred to school orphanages. School orphanages provide education for children in the high school level. In mixed-type children's homes, there are pre-school and school departments.

Special orphanages have been created for children with tuberculosis who have defects in hearing , vision, musculoskeletal system, damage to the central nervous system, etc.

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Orphanages are under the jurisdiction of public education authorities or industrial enterprises, departments, collective farms, and orphanages for the disabled are under the jurisdiction of the Social Security Authorities.

Medical care for children's homes of all departments is carried out under the direct supervision of health authorities.

Medical and preventive care for children in orphanages is provided by doctors and nurses who are members of orphanages; specialized medical examinations of pupils are carried out by doctors of territorial medical institutions attached to this orphanage. In children's homes in rural areas, with two age groups of children, where there is no full-time doctor position, instead of a nurse post, a paramedic post may be introduced. Medical observation of the pupils of such orphanages is carried out by attached doctors.

Methodical guidance and control over the work of medical personnel and the sanitary condition of orphanages are carried out by health authorities.

When a child enters the orphanage, a medical certificate is submitted containing information about the child’s health, past diseases, preventive vaccinations, the absence of a contraindication to receive, birth certificate, and a certificate from the place of residence and information about parents and others. orphanage children are subject to physical examination.

The paramedical staff of the orphanages conducts examinations of all incoming children and fulfills all the doctor’s appointments. A medical assistant or nurse conducts periodic medical examinations of children, monitors their physical development , identifies all ill children and isolates them from groups. For sick children who do not need hospitalization, the paramedic or nurse provides observation and care. Under the guidance of a doctor, the nursing staff at the children's home conducts preventive vaccinations, physiotherapy procedures, and also organizes and conducts all tempering procedures among children, monitors the inculcation of hygienic skills. It is also the responsibility of the nurses in orphanages to supervise the proper organization of children's nutrition. Among the employees of the orphanage, a paramedic or nurse conducts sanitary-educational work and monitors their compliance with sanitary and hygienic rules. All medical records and records of medical work are conducted by paramedical staff.