Dexamethasone (Dexamethasonum; synonym: Decadron, Millicorten; list B ) is a synthetic glucocorticosteroid that is significantly more active than cortisone. Indications for use are the same as that of cortisone (see).
Assign dexamethasone inside of 0.001, and in severe cases of 0.002 g 3 times a day. After the onset of the therapeutic effect, the dose is gradually reduced to 0.0005 - 0.001 g per day. The daily dose is prescribed in 2-3 doses during or after meals. Dexamethasone is well tolerated by patients, rarely causes side effects. Product form: tablets of 0.0005 and 0.001 g.
See also Hormone therapy , Corticosteroids.
Dexamethasone (Dexametazon) - 16-a-methyl-9-a-fluoro-prednisone. Highly active synthetic corticosteroid substance. Its anti-inflammatory effect in the experiment is 190 times stronger than the action of the natural hormone, while the effect on glycogen deposition is only 17 times more intense than the influence of the natural hormone. The activity of the drug is 7 times higher than prednisone and 35 times higher than cortisone. The drug is well tolerated. In therapeutic doses, relatively little effect on mineral metabolism and most often does not cause a delay of chlorine, sodium and water in the body. However, it may cause swelling. The insignificant effect of dexamethasone on the exchange of electrolytes is due to the fact that it dramatically inhibits the formation of hydrocortisone, but does not affect the production of aldosterone.Go
The effect of dexamethasone on carbohydrate metabolism is insignificant. Glycemia under its influence varies little. In patients with diabetes who received prednisone or adrenocorticotropic hormone, with the transition to dexamethasone, a marked decrease in glycosuria occurred. According to other data, in some patients, dexamethasone causes the usual effect for glycocorticoids on carbohydrate metabolism.
Dexamethasone dramatically reduces the excretion of 17-ketosteroids in the urine. The opinion of some researchers that the drug causes the appearance of buffalo-type obesity and other manifestations of hypercorticism to a lesser extent than prednisone is not supported by other authors.
Dexamethasone is 25 times stronger than cortisone, inhibits lymphoid tissue. Due to enhanced excretion of calcium with feces, the balance of this mineral becomes negative. Dexamethasone appears to have no effect on arterial blood pressure. Skin hemorrhagic rashes, occurring without changes in platelet count and blood clotting time, were observed relatively often. The action on the gastrointestinal tract is possibly even stronger than other corticoids.
Large doses of the drug enhance the exchange of nitrogen and lead to its negative balance. However, at the same time, appetite increases dramatically, which causes weight gain.
Side effects in the treatment with dexamethasone appear only after long-term treatment, but then in a more severe form. They include osteoporosis, hypercorticoidism, hypoproteinemia, edema. On this basis, it is believed that dexamethasone is unsuitable for long-term treatment, but effective for short courses.
Mode of application. Assign dexamethasone inside. For the treatment of adrenal-sexual syndrome caused by hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex, dexamethasone is used in the amount of 0.00075-0.00125 per day. Its use is based on the pronounced inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on the pituitary gland in the experiment.
In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, clinical results are better than with prednisone treatment. The required maintenance dose is on average 0.0013 per day (from 0.0008 to 0.002).
With rheumatism, the initial dose of the drug was 0.002–0.005 per day, supporting 0.001–0.002. Within 4-5 days, patients experience a dramatic clinical improvement.
When treating children with rheumatism, the initial dose is 0.00014–0.0002 per 1 kg of weight. Maintenance dose of 0.001.
The drug has a good effect in bronchial asthma, eczema, urticaria, angioedema, acute attacks of gout, disseminated lupus erythematosus, seasonal catarrh of the upper respiratory tract.
Dosage. The usual daily dose is 0.0003, in severe cases it is increased to 0.001–0.003, after the onset of the therapeutic effect, it is gradually reduced to 0.0005–0.001 per day. The daily dose is prescribed in two or three doses during or after a meal.
Stop treatment gradually, it is advisable to appoint several injections of adrenocorticotropic hormone at the end of treatment.
Form release. Tablets of 0.0005-0.001.
Rp. Dexametazoni 0.0005.
D. td in tabulettis N. 20.
S. 0.5 tablets three times a day.