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Disinfectants

Disinfectants are various mechanical, physical, and chemical agents used to kill arthropods. To protect people and animals from arthropods are used repellents (see).

According to their effect on various arthropods or at their developmental stage, chemical agents are divided into insect poisons — insecticides, ticks — acaricides, larvae — larvicides, o to the death of arthropod populations by sexual sterilization of individuals; attractants, or substances that attract arthropods.

Insecticides are used in the form of dusts, powders, suspensions, emulsions, solutions, baits, aerosols, vapors and gases, pencils, soaps, ointments, lotions, varnishes, paints.

Chemical disinfectants are classified according to chemical composition and synthesis into several groups: chlorinated hydrocarbons (including chlorinated terpenes), organophosphates, carbamates, vegetable insecticides, and other compounds with insecticidal properties.

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The chlorinated hydrocarbons include: 1) hexachlorocyclohexane (hexachlorane, or HCH), consisting of 8 isomers, with the gamma isomer being active; 2) gamma isomer of hexachlorane; 3) DDT. These drugs are insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents . Hexachlorane and gamma isomer hexachlorane have contact, intestinal and fumigation effects; DDT is the poison of contact action. The most toxic to insects is the gamma isomer of hexachlorane. They are used to destroy indoor flies, bed bugs, cockroaches, fleas, mosquitoes, mites, moths, lice. They are used in the form of pastes, dusts, emulsions, concentrates, suspensions, soaps, pencils, mastics, ointments, aerosols. Hexachlorane, unlike DDT and the gamma isomer, has a strong odor, and therefore is not recommended for tissue impregnation, continuous processing of residential and working premises inside and in food enterprises.

For insect control, the rate of consumption of DDT and HCCH is 2-3 g of ADV per 1 m 2 of surface, the gamma isomer of HCCH - 0.75-1 g per 1 m 2 ; to combat mosquito larvae, the rate of HCCH is 0.1–0.3 kg / ha of the surface of the reservoir.

Chlorinated terpenes also belong to the group of chlorinated hydrocarbons, are products of the chlorination of turpentine and its fractions. These include polychlorinated and polychlorocamphene, produced by the industry in the form of 65% concentrate. They are mainly used as larvicides for controlling a housefly at a consumption rate of 0.2 l of a 5% aqueous emulsion per 1 m 2 of grab or cesspool.

Organophosphate compounds have a stronger selective effect - they are generally more effective for controlling arthropods and are less toxic to humans than chlorinated hydrocarbons .

This group of disinfectants includes: 1) DDVF, or dimethyldichlorovinyl phosphate, is the product of chlorophos dehydrochlorination; 2) karbofos; 3) methyl nitrophos; 4) trichloro-metaphos-3; 5) chlorophos. All of these drugs in their pure form are insoluble in water, except for chlorophos, soluble in organic solvents. Produced by the industry in the form of 20-50% concentrates, except for chlorophos, which is produced in the form of a liquid preparation, bulk powder, chlorophos paper. For the control of bedbugs, flies, cockroaches , mosquitoes , water emulsions or solutions of preparations are used with a consumption rate of 0.1-3 g ADV per 1 m 2 of surface. Chlorophos, DDVP and carbofos are used to control flies and bait from molasses (molasses), etc.

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Carbamates are poisons of contact and intestinal action. This group includes sevin and others. Sevin is effective in the fight against ants, cockroaches, moths, bed bugs, fleas, mosquitoes; in relation to indoor flies ineffective.

Pyrethrins are the most effective drugs from the group of plant insecticides. They are applied in the form of a powder, the rate of consumption is 3-5 g per 1 m 2 . Synthetic pyrethrins (allethrin, dimethrin, neopinamine, etc.) are not inferior to the natural.

Of the other insecticides in the practice of disinsection, naphthalizol and cresols are used mainly as larvicides with a consumption rate of 4-12 liters of a 20% aqueous solution per 1 m 2 surface (depending on the layer thickness). Also used bait with a bait to kill cockroaches and ants. To combat cockroaches use 70-75 g of borax and 30-35 g of powdered sugar or 60 g of borax, 20 g of powdered sugar and 20 g of wheat starch.

To fight the ants, use 30 g of borax, 400 g of sugar, 100 g of bee honey, 1 ml of vanilla essence and 1.5 g of pear essence; the mixture is boiled, poured into 3-4 ml in test tubes and laid out in places frequented by ants.

Used aerosol cans, using them as insecticides DDT, DDVF and pyrethrins to kill flying insects (flies, mosquitoes, mosquitoes, etc.), the consumption rate of 0.2—0.3 g ADV per 1 m 3 ; against bedbugs and cockroaches, the consumption rate increases 3-4 times.

When working with pesticides, you must take precautions: use clothing (gown, rubber gloves , shoes), a respirator or gauze bandage with a cotton pad, covering the nose and mouth , and glasses. When burning paper soaked in disinfectants, or sublimation of the latter, be sure to wear a gas mask .

Preparation of insecticides for work (preparation of emulsions, aerosol paper, baits, packaging of powders, etc.) should be carried out in special rooms with open air vents, avoiding drafts, as otherwise the preparation can get in large numbers on the worker. The dishes in which the drugs are bred can not be used for cooking food for animals and even more so for people.

In case of poisoning, it is necessary to remove the victim from the room, remove his clothing. If ingesting insecticides, wash the stomach , then give a salt laxative ; in case of poisoning with DDT and HCH, sour milk or whey is useful; in case of poisoning with organophosphate insecticides - 12-15% water suspension of activated carbon in half a cup again after 1 and 2 hours, 1% solution of baking soda (150 ml) or water suspension of clean chalk. If you get poison in your eyes, rinse them with clean water and drip a solution of sodium sulfacyl . In severe poisoning, hospitalization is indicated.

For mechanical and physical means - see Disinsection .