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Diathermy

Diathermy (synonym: endothermy, thermopenetration) is a method of physiotherapy , which consists in heating tissues and organs with a high-frequency electric current passing through them (1.0-1.65 MHz) with a force up to 2 a and voltage up to 150 V.

Diathermy is indicated in chronic and subacute inflammatory diseases of various organs and systems, dystrophic and adhesive processes, vasospasm, vocal cords, stomach and intestines, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, and bleeding pneumonia (in combination with antibiotics ) and jade. Diathermy is contraindicated in purulent processes, tuberculosis, diseases of the nervous system with a loss of temperature sensitivity, a tendency to bleeding, toxemia, malignant neoplasms, sharp depletion, in the presence of metallic foreign bodies in the tissues.

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For the procedures of diathermy, the devices UDL-350 (Fig. 1), UDL-200, plate and cavity electrodes and bath electrodes of various sizes and shapes (Fig. 2) are used. All types of electrodes are connected to diathermy devices with high-frequency insulation wires and clamps or soldering.


Fig. 1. Device for diathermy "UDL-350".

diathermy electrodes
Fig. 2. Electrodes for diathermy:
1 - plate;
2 - the electrode-instep;
3 - half mask;
4 - “butterfly”;
5 - ear;
6 - cavitary;
7 — bath electrodes;
8 - eye electrode.

Lamellar electrodes are placed directly on healthy skin and fixed, like the handles of abdominal electrodes, by bandaging. Other methods of fixing the electrodes are prohibited. With an uneven surface on which to place the electrode, and with hairiness, a hydrophilic pad moistened with a 10% sodium chloride solution is placed under the electrode, or an electrode bath filled with the same solution is used. After consumption, plate electrodes are rubbed with alcohol, cavity cavities are boiled sterilized.


Fig. 3. The position of the electrodes in diathermy of various areas:
1 and 2 - the trigeminal nerve ; 3 - the kidneys; 4 - sciatic nerve.

Therapeutic methods of diathermy can be local, segmental (Fig. 3) and general. With the segmental technique, one electrode is placed on the region of the cervico-thoracic spine , the other on the wrist or hand, or one electrode is placed on the lumbosacral region, and the other two are placed on the front surfaces of the thighs.

Procedures are metered according to current density (3-5 ma per 1 cm 2 of electrode) and time (20-30 minutes, sometimes up to 1.5 hours). Apply the procedure more often every other day, up to 15-20 per course of treatment.

All diathermy devices should be grounded through a special grounding circuit; all metal pipes in cabinets 2 l from the floor are covered with insulating ducts; the metal case of the diathermy apparatus is protected by a screen or covered with an oilcloth; in the ward, in the dressing room, at home the metal parts of the table, the beds are covered with woolen blankets and oilcloth. A rubber mat with an area of ​​1 m 2 is placed on the tiled floor for the staff.

Diathermy is gradually replaced by the method of inductothermy (see) and microwave therapy (see).