Dicroceliosis is a helminthiasis of the liver and gallbladder , caused by the trematode Dicrocoelium lanceatum (lanceolate fluke). The length of the parasite 5-15 mm, width 1-2.5 mm (Fig.). Eggs with a thick shell size 0.038—0.045x0.022-0.030 mm. In the stage of puberty, it parasitizes in the bile ducts and in the gallbladder of cattle and small ruminants and other mammals, occasionally in humans. Intermediate hosts - some land mollusks, additional hosts - ants.
Infection with dicroceliosis occurs when ants are accidentally swallowed with food. Helminths injure tissues, their metabolic products sensitize the body. The bile ducts in dicroceliosis are dilated, their walls are thickened, and the epithelium is in a state of hyperplasia. Clinically, dicroceliosis occurs with symptoms of cholangitis , biliary dyskinesia, less often chronic hepatitis.
| Lanceolate Fluke: |
1 - oral sucker;
2 - the esophagus ;
3 - abdominal sucker;
4 - testes;
5 - the ovary;
b - the uterus ;
7 - sexual opening.
The diagnosis is made when it is found in the feces and duodenal juice of helminth eggs. In human feces, there are also so-called transit eggs, which were consumed by eating the liver of livestock affected by dicroceliosis and passed through the stomach and intestines without change.
The diagnosis of dicroceliosis is reliable only when eggs are detected after exclusion from the liver of food for 7–10 days.
The treatment is carried out with emetine or chloxyl. Injected under the skin with 1.5 ml of 2% solution of emetine hydrochloride 2 times a day in cycles of 3 days; interval between cycles 4 days; only 4–5 such cycles are performed.
Chloxyl (hexachloroparaxylene) is administered orally at a daily dose of 0.15 g per 1 kg of patient body weight (adult 9-10 g) with milk in three doses after meals for 2 days.
Prevention . Food protection from ants, the fight against animal dicroceliosis. See also Trematodoses .