Disinfectants are chemical and physical means used to destroy the causative agents of human, animal and plant diseases in the external environment.
Physical agents used as disinfectants are boiling, drying, steam treatment, dry hot air, exposure to high frequency currents, ultrasound , ultraviolet rays, etc.
Chemical disinfectants used to destroy pathogenic microorganisms on environmental objects should have good solubility in water, cause microbial death in a short time, not reduce activity in the presence of organic substances, be non-toxic or have low toxicity for humans and animals, and not have a sharp unpleasant odor and do not spoil the disinfected items.
These disinfectants are often used in the form of solutions or suspensions in certain concentrations, adhering to the prescribed periods of action.Go
The most common disinfectants are chloroactive substances, phenol derivatives, quaternary ammonium and ampholytic compounds, iodophors, etc.
Chloroactive compounds . Chloramine B - powder containing 26% active chlorine. 1 - 3% chloramine solutions are used for disinfection in intestinal infections and infections transmitted by airborne droplets. For tuberculosis, 5% solutions are used. The addition of activators (ammonia in a ratio of 1: 8 or ammonium salts in a ratio of 1: 1 and 1: 2) increases the activity of chloramine. Activated solutions of chloramine are used in lower concentrations (0.25–1%).
The analogue of chloramine B is chloramine CB, used in the same concentrations.
Bleach (a mixture of calcium salts, contains active chlorine ) is an unstable product, therefore it should be stored in a closed tight container in a dry, cool room. Bleaching powder is used in the form of clarified solutions and chlorine-lime milk.
Residential and industrial premises are disinfected with 0.2–0.5% of working solutions of bleach prepared from 10% of the clarified solution obtained by settling. To prepare 10 liters of the working solution, take 200–500 ml of the original clarified 10% solution. Linen and other textiles, metal and painted objects are not treated with bleach to avoid damage. Chloro-lime milk 10–20% is used to disinfect non-residential premises, outhouse installations and other objects. Discharges (urine, feces, vomit, etc.) are filled with dry bleach at the rate of 200 g per 1 liter or 1 kg of disinfected mass.
Detratebasic salt of calcium hypochlorite (DTSGK) contains 47-56% of active chlorine. By the nature of the disinfectant action is close to bleach. The concentration of working solutions DTSGK 2 times less than the concentration of bleach, as it contains 2 times more active chlorine.
Solutions DTSGK used for disinfection of premises, discharge, soil , asphalt and other environmental objects.
For intestinal and drip infections, 0.2-0.5% solutions are used. For disinfection in tuberculosis and anthrax are also used activated solutions DTSGK. In case of tuberculosis, 0.25% effective solutions are effective, and in case of anthrax - 2% activated solutions DTSGK.
The most effective chlorine disinfectants are substances with a high content of active chlorine: dichlorohydantoin, dichlorodimethylhydantoin, dichloroisocyanuric acid and its sodium and potassium salts, etc. Hydantoin derivatives contain 70-80% of active chlorine and can be used for disinfection in intestinal and intestinal forms of intestinal and chlorine disinfectants. in 0,025 - 0,1% solutions. Sodium and potassium salts of dichloroisocyanuric acid contain 56–59% of active chlorine and are recommended for disinfecting linen, toys, dishes, furniture, and placing in 0.1–0.2% solutions for infectious diseases of the intestinal and droplet groups.