Doses (doses) is a certain amount of the medicine entered into an organism. In the recipe (see). Doses are indicated in grams, milliliters, biological units of action (AU) or antitoxic units (AE). The dose per dose is called a single dose (dosis pro dosi), and the dose taken during the day is called a daily dose (dosis pro die). The concentration of the drug in the blood and, consequently, the intensity of its pharmacological action and, to a certain extent, the rate of onset and the duration of the effect depend on the dose. The smallest dose that exerts a characteristic pharmacological response is called the minimum effective; the smallest dose that causes toxic effects is minimal toxic. For therapeutic purposes, use doses that lie in the interval between the minimum effective and the minimum toxic. In order to avoid poisoning for the toxic and potent substances in the Pharmacopoeia (see) the highest single and daily doses are indicated, which cannot be exceeded in the absence of special indications. Only a doctor has the right to exceed pharmacopoeial doses. For medicinal substances capable of accumulation (see Cumulation), course doses are important, i.e. the total amount of the drug for the entire course of treatment. Therapeutic doses are not constant, they depend on the individual sensitivity of the patient to the drug substance, the nature of the disease, etc. Children are more sensitive to drugs than adults. Higher doses of drugs for adults and children of different ages are given in the table (see Appendix to volume III). For persons older than 60 years, reduce the dose to 3 / 4-1 / 2 of the usual dose of an adult.
The dose depends on the method of administering the drug: when administered intravenously, it is 3-5 times, and when subcutaneous, it is 2-3 times less than the dose administered orally (through the mouth ) when the substance is absorbed gradually.