Dracunculiasis (Rishta) is a disease caused by round helminth Dracunculus medinensis. The female reaches a length of 32-120 cm with a width of 0.5 - 1.7 mm.
Adult dracunculi are parasitic in humans, less commonly in dogs, cats, monkeys, and others; the larvae are in the crustacean Cyclops. Young males and females live in deep tissues of the body. Fertilized females migrate to the subcutaneous tissue, often in the legs. The secret of the head glands of females causes the formation of a bladder with a diameter of 2-7 cm on the skin. In contact with water, the bubble bursts, and the tissue of the female also breaks; the larvae go into the water. The larvae swallowed up by the crustacean cyclopus become invasive at a temperature of 23-28 ° C in 6-14 days. A person becomes infected by swallowing cyclops with raw water. From the human intestine, the larvae, via the lymphatic ducts, after 43-48 days enter the tissues. Full sexual development of dracunculus ends in a year. The spread of dracunculiasis is associated with unsanitary conditions, lack of water supply and sewage.
In the USSR there was a center of dracunculiasis in Bukhara, in 1932 it was liquidated. The disease begins in 9-14 months. after infection with the development of allergic phenomena. With the formation of bubbles in the joints develop synovitis , contractures and ankylosis of the joints. As a result of secondary infection, abscesses, phlegmon , gangrene and even sepsis develop. The diagnosis is based on the detection of a prominent cord-shaped roller on the skin at the site of parasitization of dracunculius, as well as on the results of immunological reactions. The treatment is carried out by carefully removing the parasite from the tissues (fig.) While observing the rules of asepsis . Assign inside Dimedrol 0.05 g 3 times a day.
Prevention of dracunculiasis is reduced to the improvement of sanitary conditions, the device of modern water supply, the prohibition of drinking water from open standing reservoirs, and sanitary education .