Dyspareunia is a painful or difficult sexual intercourse in women. Disorders are usually physiological rather than psychological. Dyspareunia can be caused by inflammation or infection of the vagina, vaginismus (conscious or involuntary contraction of the lower vaginal muscles), remnants of the virginal membrane, insufficient lubrication of the vagina, infection, endometriosis, tumors or other pathological conditions (including anal, such as hemorrhoids, or urinary tract). This may be partially or fully (much less often) the result of psychosexual conflicts; For example, after experiencing severe pain, during the first attempts at sexual intercourse, a woman may begin to experience fear or aversion to such intimacy, even if the pain does not subsequently recur.
Diagnosing the underlying cause of dyspareunia may indicate the need to treat infection or inflammation, counseling in the anatomy and functioning of the female reproductive system, the use of lubricants and, in some cases, surgical removal of tumors or treatment of endometriosis. In the treatment is usually desirable cooperation of both partners.