Each living being has a more or less stable order of life during the day, month, year. In animals, it is dictated by physiological needs, the relationship in the natural community, in the herd or flock, as well as biorhythms in the course of life processes. In a person, social moments are the defining factors - work, social activity, family responsibilities and so on.
This schedule is not so much a schedule of affairs by the hour, but a change of sleep and wakefulness, work and rest that has become habitual. This is the mode of life, the established alternation of action. It is based on the formation of conditioned reflex connections and their expedient combination with reflexes unconditional, congenital. In science, these recurring life cycles are called dynamic stereotypes.
The physiological basis of the dynamic stereotype is the formation in the central nervous system of a certain sequence and rhythm of the two main processes - excitation and inhibition. The organism, thus, creates the most favorable conditions for the realization of life's tasks. So, by the time of food intake, the departments regulating the release of enzymes, digestion, absorption and other processes are alerted. This happens in the event that food always occurs at the same time.The
Before the beginning of work, the appropriate groups of muscles are transferred to the desired regime, oxygen consumption is increased, heart activity is increased, attention is attracted, biological devices are memorized (in training), etc. In other words, all the components of the so-called working tone are put into operation. In the reverse order, the body prepares for inhibition, reducing the tone for rest. Thus, the nerve centers are prepared to "guide" certain actions or biological functions and states (sleep, peace, movement, etc.). This, in the language of cybernetics, is achieved by optimizing the process. Strictly worked out dynamics of active and inactive (excitation and inhibition) of the state of various departments of the central nervous system allows you to better cope with the tasks that life sets.
Many, sometimes very complicated operations, the skilled worker performs "without thinking," automatically. But he will achieve this only after a long combination of precisely these processes and precisely in this combination. For such professional automatism, a consistent, habitual, practice-fixed sequence of action in time and space is needed. This sequence, as in the mirror, initially exists in the brain. It is what is called the dynamic stereotype, it also facilitates the exact performance of labor operations without significant expenditure of "mental energy" on the thinking of each operation. This applies not only to physical, but also mental work.
The very formation of a dynamic stereotype is also not easy. This is perhaps the most difficult work, as this adaptation to new conditions is a process of learning and learning new skills, it is the combined work of the brain and muscles. It is accompanied by various kinds of shifts in the physiological state of systems and changes in biochemical processes.
In experiments on animals it is shown, for example, that when a stereotype is formed and the organism only adapts to a new load or when a stereotype breaks down, hypercholesterolemia develops. Then, when the load becomes habitual, the conditioned reflex is fixed, i.e., when a stereotype was developed, the cholesterol level in the blood fell below the norm. If the animal is transferred to a resting mode, then during this period there is a breakdown of the old stereotypes associated with work and the formation of a new one, connected with rest; in this period again develops hypercholesterolemia.
This is because the nervous system, despite the rest of the animal in our understanding, does not rest, but works. And since a new stereotype is being developed, this work is as difficult for the nervous system as it was in the first days after the onset of the formation of a new conditioned reflex.The
It was noted that the longer the previous tension of the nervous system and the more it is depleted, the higher and longer the hypercholesterolemia during rest. Apparently, in this case the formation of a new stereotype is more difficult; Two years after the beginning of the experiments, animals could not develop a new stereotype even after two months of rest. Thus, the continuous and rapid change of the operating and rest modes led the nervous system into a state of continuous tension.
A new and very important observation was made. It turns out that with prolonged tension of the nervous system, dogs develop widespread atherosclerosis. Under the same conditions, rabbits managed to cause only the initial stage of the disease. These studies suggest that the higher the organization of the animal's nervous system, the quicker and easier it can be to induce neurogenic disorders of lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis.
It must be assumed that the application of the method of conditioned reflexes on rabbits is not an adequate method for its poorly developed cerebral cortex. In this regard, the technique of experiments on rabbits was changed. Hereditary conditioned stereotype was taken: the motor activity of animals. In one case, rabbits were almost completely deprived of active movements, For this purpose they were placed in solitary, close boxes, in which they could move 6-10 cm forward and backward. In this position, the rabbits were for ten days. The next ten days they were released and actively moved. Systematic change of periods of active movements and passive state of animals led to disorders in cholesterol metabolism, development of hypercholesterolemia and severe atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis developed 12-15 months after the beginning of the experiments. The conclusion suggests itself. Frequent changes in the stereotype of motor activity to a dormant state led to disturbances in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis.
And here is another example. Rabbits were deprived of food and given only water for ten days. In the next ten days they were on a normal diet. Every time during fasting, rabbits developed hypercholesterolemia, while on a normal diet the cholesterol level came to normal. Four-fold fasting led to the deposition of lipids in the aorta, that is, to the initial stage of atherosclerosis.
And in this case we can be sure that the systematic adaptation to new conditions, that is, the restructuring of the stereotype (motor activity or normal nutrition), is accompanied by hypercholesterolemia and the deposition of lipids in the artery.
Undoubtedly, in experiments with a decrease in motor activity, the effect of switching off or weakening the flow of impulses from the muscular system also had an effect. These impulses are sent to the cerebral cortex, into subcortical formations and tonify, and charge them.
Each kind of living beings (including humans) is inherited by one or another level of motor activity, more precisely - muscle activity. Physical activity not only tones up the nervous system, but also affects the level of metabolic processes. Therefore, a decrease in physical activity, whatever it is, ultimately leads to profound changes in metabolism.
Such questions are not clear. How does the change of stereotype cause disturbances in lipid metabolism and even the development of atherosclerosis? How does the nervous processes that occur in the cerebral cortex affect the level of cholesterol and other lipids in the blood? Let's remember the constant enemies of a cat and a dog. After all, when they meet, as a rule, the level of cholesterol in the blood increases. When the animals meet, there is an excitement, manifested by fury. And fury, indignation, hatred, hunger are primitive emotions. One might think that emotional excitement is the cause of increased cholesterol and other lipids in the blood. And not just emotional excitement, but the appearance of negative emotions. After all, when hunger also develops emotional excitement, and these emotions can not be called positive.
Recall - after the artists during the premiere also develops hypercholesterolemia, as well as emotional arousal.
All the examples cited convincingly indicate that negative emotions lead to hypercholesterolemia.
Hypercholesterolemia is also affected by the restructuring of the stereotype. It is known from the works of Academician IP Pavlov that the formation or restructuring of a stereotype is always accompanied by emotional excitement. So, adaptation to new conditions never occurs without emotions, and the latter - without hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis in experimental animals developed with frequent changes in the stereotype, that is, with frequent emotional excitement.
All these facts lead to the conclusion that emotional overstrain caused the development of atherosclerosis in experimental rabbits and dogs.
And there are examples in the scientific literature. So, it is known that at wild animals, which are in captivity (zoos), atherosclerosis develops. During the life of the same animals at large, this disease does not occur in them. According to the conclusion of the researchers, vascular lesions in animal zoos could not be explained by overfeeding or old age. It was also noted that atherosclerosis was all the more pronounced, the more popular this species of animal used by the public. Most likely the development of the disease was associated with emotional overexertion, caused by unusual conditions of life in captivity. The suppression of instincts, the reduction of motor activity, the exclusion of the usual, habitual way of obtaining food (hunting in predators), the appearance and smell in the immediate vicinity of the most dangerous enemy - the man - all this caused a considerable and prolonged emotional overstrain, which eventually led to the development of atherosclerosis even in birds.
And now in order to understand the mechanisms of development of atherosclerosis, it is necessary to find out what emotions are and to what changes in the body they lead. The following pages will be devoted to these questions.