The Childhood diseases
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Childhood diseases

This collection is intended for a wide range of readers. It describes the most common acute infectious diseases in children. Along with such childhood infections as measles, scarlet fever, chickenpox, etc., diseases are included, which are equally found in adults, but for children are of great danger. These are influenza and epidemic hepatitis (Botkin's disease), diseases that attract special attention in recent years.

What causes all these diseases, how they are infected and what measures can they be prevented? This is the main content of this section.

The section is designed for a wide range of readers. It provides basic information on widespread infectious diseases in children. Particular attention is paid to the care of sick children at home and the prevention of infectious diseases.

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Infectious diseases in children

Other diseases and traumas that occur in children

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The fight against infectious (infectious) diseases was and remains one of the main tasks of public health.

This struggle is especially important now in connection with the decision providing for a sharp reduction in the incidence of infectious diseases and the complete elimination of some of them.

The solution of this task is occupied by numerous personnel of medical workers, beginning with the large scientists of all specialties (microbiologists, infectious disease specialists, pediatricians) and ending with nurses. However, for this struggle to be more successful, the parent should take the most active part in it. Without the conscious and active assistance of the general population, many preventive measures, that is, measures that contribute to the prevention of the disease, are becoming much less effective. But in order to provide this help, you need to know the main signs of these diseases, ways of spreading and preventing them.

This section is written for familiarization of wide sections of readers with the most common childhood infectious diseases and modern methods of their prevention and treatment. To so-called children's infections are: diphtheria, scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough, chicken pox, rubella, mumps, poliomyelitis. The name "childhood infections" has become widespread, but these diseases can be in adults, but more often they suffer from children aged 1 to 8 years. The predominant incidence of these infections in childhood is due to the ease and speed of their spread, with the greatest possible contact (especially in children's institutions, kindergartens, day nurseries, schools).

Many parents believe that every child must inevitably suffer childhood infectious diseases, and the earlier he gets sick, the easier it will be for the disease. This, of course, is incorrect. It should be remembered that almost every disease can be prevented and that every disease, including infectious disease, weakens the child's organism and slows down its development, sometimes for a long time. The younger the child, the more harmful it causes the disease. Therefore, the joint efforts of parents and health professionals should be aimed at preventing the occurrence of infectious diseases, especially in the early years of a child's life.

The socio-economic importance of childhood infectious diseases is also very high: they disrupt the normal life of children's institutions, quarantines tear mothers from production sometimes for a long time, which hinders the work of production, creates difficulties in the life of the family and leads to large expenditures of public funds.

Propedeutics of childhood diseases

In the third edition of Propedeutics of Childhood Illnesses, all the main sections of the doctrine of a healthy child, about his nutrition and caring for him, have been reconsidered and subjected to some processing from the standpoint of the basic ideas of Pavlov's physiological teachings. In all chapters, additions and changes were made in accordance with the new literature data and our own experience.

We aimed to give the student a short textbook that would allow him not only to learn the basics of the doctrine of a healthy child from the standpoint of creative Soviet Darwinism and Pavlov's physiological teaching, but who would interest him and help him to love his future specialty - pediatrics. We wanted the student - the future children's doctor - to understand the enormous significance of knowing the age-related features of a healthy child and the decisive impact on the development of children and the resistance of their body to any negative influences of the correct organization of environmental factors, care for them, their nutrition and upbringing.

In practical classes on the course of propaedeutics of childhood illnesses, the student must acquire the right skills of objective research of the child in order to be able to catch even minor deviations from the norm, which are noted in the initial phases of the disease in his future activity. To help the student in this is also one of the tasks of the textbook.

The child's doctor in his daily work should focus on the prevention of childhood illnesses and already on the student's bench "get a taste" for this work. This is one of the main tasks of the correct education of a student at the pediatric faculty; a textbook of propaedeutics of childhood diseases should help teachers in this work.

In describing the methods of studying children and general semiotics of childhood diseases, we considered it necessary to dwell only on the features of using the basic clinical methods of assessing the health status of children of different ages. Theoretical substantiation of these methods are set out additionally in practical exercises and are described in detail "in the textbooks of diagnostics and propaedeutics of internal diseases. We sincerely thank all comrades who sent us their criticisms, and are especially grateful to the members of the Academic Council of the Leningrad State Pediatric Medical Institute for all their valuable remarks and instructions made by them during the discussion of the second edition of our textbook.

All the criticisms that will be made to us and about the third edition of "Propaedeutics of Childhood Illnesses" will be received with sincere gratitude.

Produced textbook - "Propaedeutics of Childhood Illnesses" - is intended for students of pediatric faculties of medical institutes. During the compilation of the textbook, the experience of teaching propaedeutics of childhood illnesses to students of the Leningrad State Pediatric Medical Institute was used, and criticisms were taken of the chapters written for the "Manual on Pediatrics" by MS Maslov, AF Tur and MG Danilevich (t. I, 1938). These chapters, largely revised, are the basis of this textbook.

Perhaps in our work there are defects, therefore, all the instructions and remarks that will be made by the heads of the departments, practical doctors and the students themselves, we will accept with gratitude.

The fourth edition, in the emergence of which appeared to be necessary two months after the publication of the third edition, goes without any significant changes and additions and only corrected accidentally crept in errors and typos.

Contents and objectives of the course propaedeutics of childhood diseases

The original content of pediatrics as one of the medical disciplines has significantly expanded. Pediatrics has long ceased to be a science only about the treatment of sick children and is now considered as a teaching about a healthy and sick child. This teaching covers physiology, dietetics, hygiene, pathology and treatment of the child from birth to puberty. Modern pediatrics pays particular attention to the prevention of children's diseases. Every child doctor in his day-to-day practice should be not only a full-fledged physician who can diagnose an accurate diagnosis and correctly treat a sick child, but he must be a good preventive doctor who knows the child's diet very well, who can organize the necessary care and establish a rational regime for a single healthy child of any age, and for the whole children's collective. The child's doctor should not be on the sidelines and on the issues of raising children. All these various aspects of the activity of the children's doctor should be learned and studied by the student mainly during the course of clinical pediatrics. Propaedeutics of childhood diseases is an introduction to a pediatric clinic.

In the course of propaedeutics of childhood diseases, the following four main sections are included: 1) the anatomical and physiological characteristics of children, including the laws of the child's physical and neuropsychological development; 2) the method of objective research of children, including the features of collecting anamnesis; 3) general semiotics of childhood diseases; 4) dietetics of a healthy child with the basic elements of the technology of children's food.

Without a clear knowledge of these sections, the preventive and curative work of the pediatrician is completely inconceivable. Correct evaluation of the data of usual physical, laboratory and other methods of clinical research of the child and understanding of the originality of the pathology of children are possible only if the knowledge of the age-related anatomical and physiological features of the growing child's organism is sufficiently deep. Without knowledge of the laws of the physical and neuropsychological development of children, it is impossible to carry out the correct organization of public and individual protection, childhood, and, consequently, it is also impossible to ensure the prevention of childhood diseases. This knowledge should underlie rationally delivered physical education of children.

Clinical study of children requires a great deal of unique physician technique, the study of which should also be included in the course of propaedeutics of childhood diseases.

Brief information on the general semiotics of the most important diseases of childhood should provide the student with the right orientation in the course of faculty and hospital pediatrics.

In the activities of the children's doctor, as mentioned above, preventive and curative work is closely and inextricably linked. That is why in the course of propaedeutics of childhood diseases great attention should be paid to the dietetics of a healthy child and the basics of individual hygiene of children as the main elements in the everyday preventive work of every practical child's doctor. The preventive aspect of the activity of pediatricians has acquired special significance in the Soviet Union, since we have the vast majority of children, from the earliest age, served by preventive and curative children's institutions, from whose proper setting their life and health largely depend.

It would be a big mistake to think that one can become a good children's doctor without a thorough knowledge of the general theoretical disciplines (anatomy, histology, physiology, pathophysiology, etc.) studied in junior courses, and clinical disciplines on various sections of the pathology of adults studied at senior courses. A pediatrician is only then correctly and confidently oriented in all the theoretical and practical issues of his specialty, if he has a good general medical training in all disciplines included in the program of the higher medical school. Only under this condition will he clearly understand all the features of the physiology and pathology of children in different age periods.

It should be specially emphasized that every child doctor should know very well infectious diseases of childhood and should be well versed in matters of general and private epidemiology.

Necessity of such versatile knowledge certainly makes pediatrics a difficult specialty, but this path of study is ensured in the future by a good child's doctor of great horizons and exceptionally interesting and fruitful opportunities for practical and scientific activity.