Disinfection is a set of measures aimed at the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms in the external environment. In a broad sense, disinfection also includes the destruction of arthropods - carriers of infections (see Disinsection ) and rodents - carriers and carriers of infections (see Deratization).
Disinfection is included in the complex of anti-epidemic and sanitary measures.
Disinfection is divided into current, final and prophylactic.
The current disinfection is carried out before the hospitalization of the infectious patient, in the case of leaving it at home, as well as in infectious, tuberculosis and polyclinic institutions. At the same time, the patient’s discharges, dishes, linens and other items that were used by the patient are systematically disinfected, and daily wet cleaning of the premises is performed using disinfectants . The current disinfection is accompanied by strict personal hygiene by the sick and caring staff. The simplest and most accessible methods of current disinfection are boiling, wet cleaning of premises with the use of disinfectant solutions, the use of chemical disinfectants for disinfecting the patient’s discharges, soaking clothes, etc.
The staff of medical institutions or the epidemiologist of the sanitary and epidemiologic station organizes the current disinfection. Control and methodological guidance for the correct conduct of the current disinfection is entrusted to the disinfection stations or disinfection departments of sanitary and epidemiological stations. The direct executors of the current disinfection are specially trained nursing staff in medical institutions or caregivers for the sick at home. Conducting the current disinfection stop after hospitalization or recovery of the patient at the direction of the attending physician.Go
Final disinfection is carried out after removal of the patient from the center (in case of hospitalization, recovery or death). The purpose of final disinfection is the complete release of the source of infection from pathogens. Final disinfection has a particularly large epidemiological significance due to the fact that many infectious agents are able to remain viable for a long time on environmental objects. The effectiveness of the final disinfection is determined by the timing and completeness of its implementation after the removal of the patient from the focus. In the cities it is carried out in the first 6 hours. after hospitalization of the patient, and in the countryside - no later than 12 hours. Final disinfection is carried out by disinfection stations, disinfection departments of sanitary and epidemiological stations and medical stations. Disinfection work in the outbreak is completed with the execution of the relevant documents.
Preventive disinfection is carried out in order to prevent the spread of infectious diseases mainly in crowded places (in children's groups, catering establishments, medical institutions). The most common methods of preventive disinfection are: boiling, timely cleaning with the removal of debris and other waste, water chlorination, etc. Preventive measures also include the fight against insects and rodents.
All chemical disinfectants are toxic to people and animals, therefore, working with them, it is necessary to observe precautions.
Features of disinfection in certain infectious diseases:
- Adenovirus infections
- Typhoid, paratyphoid, cholera
- Hepatitis epidemic (Botkin's disease), enterovirus infections (poliomyelitis, Coxsackie infection, ECHO infection)
- Dermatomycosis (trichophytosis, microsporia, scab, athlete)
- Dysentery, salmonella
- Q fever
- Natural pox
- Staphylococcal infections (disinfection in maternity hospitals)