Go Explanations and Recommendations | Smoking and health
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Explanations

  • Recommendations
  • On the pages of this book the conducted scientific discussions are highlighted, but it does not constitute a complete protocol summary of all the materials.

    Despite the fact that the main harmful effects of smoking on health have been well known for many years, smoking continues to be one of the most important health problems in both developed and developing countries. From one quarter to three quarters of men smoke in virtually all countries from which statistics are obtained. Women usually smoke less than men, but their share in many regions of Europe and North America is about 30%, and an increasing number of them are acquiring this habit. The number of smokers continues to increase in many, although not all, developed and almost all developing countries.

    The use of tobacco products, especially cigarettes, is a significant cause of cases of long-term disability and death caused by a variety of tumor, vascular and respiratory diseases. Tumor diseases caused by smoking include cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, bladder, renal pelvis and pancreas. The most common of these is lung cancer. In most developed countries, from which data are obtained, the proportion of this disease, which can be attributed to smoking, is 80-90% in men and approaches this level in women in many of these countries. Even if in other countries a lower incidence of lung cancer is caused by tobacco, a significant proportion of the number of cases of this disease worldwide should be attributed to this single cause.

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    Tobacco is probably the strongest carcinogen currently known to affect humanity. It causes more deaths from cancer than all other well-established carcinogenic effects combined, and the annual number of deaths from lung cancer caused by tobacco continues to increase rapidly. It is assumed that by the end of our century the number of such cases will exceed 1 million, and even more deaths from other diseases due to the same cause should be added.

    In countries where oral use of tobacco in various forms is common, it also causes cancer, mainly in the mouth. This way of using tobacco extends to other countries, which should be viewed as a dangerous trend.

    In addition to this, it should be noted that smoking causes an even greater number of deaths from non-neoplastic diseases than cancer. Coronary heart disease (CHD) has become the leading cause of death in most developed countries, and in those where smoking is widespread for a long time, about 1/3 of all deaths from this disease among middle-aged people can be attributed to cigarette use. Smoking also contributes to the development of other arterial diseases and is the most important cause of chronic nonspecific lung diseases (chronic bronchitis and emphysema ).

    Based on knowledge of the chemical composition of tobacco smoke and experimental data to determine its effect on humans, it should be assumed that the “passive” effect of tobacco smoke on others is associated with some risk of developing lung cancer, however, to determine the exact extent of this risk, further study is required. Some, though less accurate, evidence has emerged that such involuntary “smoking” can also increase the incidence of CHD.

    Those who quit smoking before they develop cancer or a serious lung or heart disease can largely avoid the excessive risk of death from exposure to tobacco, which they would be exposed to by continuing to follow a bad habit. The longer the cessation period of smoking, the greater the degree of reduction of this risk.