In the section it is told about medicinal plants - places of their growth and healing properties, rules of collection and storage. You will learn how to protect these plants, what role they play in human life. Below is a list of alphabetical order of the main medicinal plants from the point of view of their use in medicine, with detailed descriptions, pictures and recommendations for use for the treatment of various diseases.
Medicinal plants - an extensive group of plants used in medical and veterinary practice for various diseases with therapeutic or preventive purposes. The medicinal properties of medicinal plants are due to the presence in them of certain chemical compounds - the so-called active substances.
Medicinal plants are used in the form of collections, or teas, powders and others, or after treatment (see Galenovye preparations , Medicinal forms). Special groups of medicines prepared from medicinal plants in chemical and pharmaceutical plants are the products of their primary processing (fatty and essential oils, resins, etc.), pure (without admixture of ballast substances), active compounds, individual chemical compounds and their combinations. The active substances are distributed unevenly in medicinal plants. Usually only those parts of the plant are used where the maximum amount of active substances accumulates. The composition and amount of active substances in medicinal plants varies throughout the year, with the age of the plant and depending on the conditions of its habitat, temperature, illumination, air humidity , soil conditions, etc. Many medicinal plants are of only historical interest, since at present medicine is not used.
The list of the most important wild and cultivated medicinal plants
The nomenclature of medicinal plants allowed for use in medical practice, contains about 160 names. Preparations or raw materials 103 of these plants are described in the tenth edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (GPF). Requests for raw medicinal plants about half by tonnage and about 75% of the nomenclature are met through the collection of wild plants, and the rest - due to cultivated medicinal plants.
Also given is the morphological description of annual medicinal plants introduced into the Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences of the Kirghiz SSR, the content of biologically active substances in them is described, the viability of plants in new conditions is described, and some questions of agrotechnology of cultivation are considered.
Recently, interest in herbal medicine has increased, which in turn has increased the number of collectors. However, it is impossible to use medicinal plants without knowing their properties and chemical composition. Many medicinal plants, their distribution and application are described in popular publications. The chemical composition, methods of obtaining certain biologically active substances from plants are considered in scientific works. Despite the seemingly abundance of known medicinal herbs, new ones are opening, which are being tested in botanical gardens and experimental stations. Botanical gardens located in different climatic zones of the globe have collections of various medicinal plants for studying biological features, medicinal properties and ways of growing these herbs. Thanks to this, new types of medicinal plants are introduced into the industry. Seeds are the main material for exchange with other botanical gardens and other organizations. Similar works are conducted in the Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences of the Kirghiz SSR.
The section contains some information about annual medicinal plants grown on the experimental plot, data on some long-known plants, but for some reason forgotten. Most plants synthesize useful substances in the above-ground mass - in the grass (chamomile pharmacy, string, snakehead, lentils), in many species the value is represented by seeds, fruits (coriander, anise, dope, flax, sleeping pills, plantain, etc.). Some plants have medicinal properties of flowers (calendula officinalis, cornflower blue, etc.).
Our long-term studies show that many introduced plants do not change the chemical composition, often the quantitative content of active substances is not inferior to that in wild plants. The chemical composition of medicinal plants was studied jointly with the Laboratory of Pharmacology of the Institute of Physiology and Experimental Pathology of the Highlands and the Laboratory of Natural Compounds of the Institute of Organic Chemistry .
All plants are divided into two groups: 1) introduced into scientific medicine and included in the pharmacopoeia of the Soviet Union; 2) used in folk medicine.
Medicinal plants - the types of plant organisms used for the manufacture of medicinal and preventive drugs, which are used in medical and veterinary practice. Herbal medicines account for over 30% of all medicines on the world market. In the USSR, about 40% of the medicines used are made from plants.
About 2500 plant species from the flora of the USSR, including those used in folk medicine, are of medicinal importance.
The diversity of the soil-climatic conditions of the USSR makes it possible to introduce on its territory numerous species of foreign medicinal plants in the cold, temperate and subtropical belts.
As a raw material for the chemical-pharmaceutical industry, in the pharmacy network and for export, more than 600 plant species can be used. Out of this number, except for secondary medicinal plants, only about 200 species belonging to 70 families (mainly the semipopular, rosaceous, legumes, labiate, umbellate, solanaceous, buckwheat, cruciferous, buttercup) are used in medicine. About 70% of used medicinal plants are used in galenic production, other types are used in the pharmacy network, homeopathy and are exported.
When harvesting wild and cultivated medicinal plants, as a rule, separate organs or parts of the plant are collected.
The collection of medicinal plant raw materials is carried out at certain times - during periods of maximum accumulation of active substances. The collected raw materials are usually dried.
In the USSR, a multifaceted study of medicinal plants already known in medicine is conducted (identification of their stocks, introduction to culture, increasing yields and finding ways to reduce the cost of raw materials, establishing better collection times, drying and storage of raw materials, preparation of new drugs and dosage forms).
They are searching for new and cheaper sources of vegetable raw materials to replace them with already known imported or scarce medicinal preparations, as well as medicinal plants with a new pharmacological and therapeutic effect (studying their chemical composition, pharmacological activity and therapeutic value, developing a technology for the production of preparations and making them) .
New medicinal plants and physiologically active substances of vegetable origin are identified by continuous or selective chemical and pharmacological studies of the flora of certain regions of the USSR. At the same time, information on the use of certain medicinal plants in folk medicine is taken into account.
When looking for a particular compound, first of all, species and genera phylogenetically close to the plant are studied, from which this compound was previously isolated.
So far, over 6,000 plant species have been studied for the content of alkaloids, over 4000 for essential oils, about 2000 for the presence of cardiac glycosides, about 3000 for saponins, about 1,000 for flavonoids, and about 1,000 for coumarins.
As a result, a large number of individual chemicals have been isolated and many new medicinal preparations have been created on their basis.