The Human physiology

What is physiology?

Physiology is a biological science that studies the vital activity of a healthy organism and its parts - systems, organs, tissues, cells.

Physiology is divided into general and particular. General physiology studies the patterns of activity of excitable tissues, the laws of their irritation, stimulation, etc. Private physiology studies the life-manifestations of various organs and their interaction in the system organizations of the whole organism. Physiology also includes such sections as comparative physiology, physiology of labor, sports, aviation and space physiology, clinical physiology, and others.

Functional changes in the body in painful processes are studied by pathological physiology (see).
Physiology is a science that studies the mechanical, physical and biochemical functions of living organisms. Physiology has traditionally been divided between the physiology of plants and animals, but the principles of physiology are universal, regardless of which organism is being studied. For example, what is known about the physiology of yeast cells can also be applied to human cells.

In this section, we will take a popular look at the basics of human physiology.


Nowadays, every person needs to know how his body works and how his body functions. This is especially important for those involved in sports . After all, the human body is a very complex biological system, in which each organ performs a certain function, but in general they all work in perfect harmony. But if suddenly one of the links of this debugged system fails, the general consistency is broken and the disease comes. In the section "Human Physiology" intended for a wide range of readers, we will popularly describe how the human body "lives and works" and what happens when its functions are violated.


Over the past 20 years, the physiology of animals and humans has been enriched by the improvement of old and the application of new research methods in such an abundance of fundamentally important facts that it required a radical revision of the previously existing theoretical ideas about the nature and mechanism of the implementation of various physiological processes. Naturally, the previously published textbooks of physiology, including those written by EB Babskii, NK Vereshchagin, AA Zubkov, and NV Timofeev "The course of normal physiology," are obsolete.

At first we intended to limit ourselves to processing the textbook published earlier. However, soon it became clear to us that it was required to write a completely new text, since the old textbook does not correspond to the modern level of science. It was necessary to significantly change both the general layout of the section, and the construction of individual chapters, and the logic of the presentation of the material.

Time has changed and our team of authors. The death of two authors - Professor NK Vereshchagin and Professor N. V. Timofeev - was for us a grave loss. They were participants in the creation of the "Course of Normal Physiology" and invested in him a lot of creative work, the results of which are reflected in this section. The composition of the team consists of Professor GI Kositsky and Doctor of Medical Sciences BI Hodorov. To work on the chapter "Sensory Functions of the Central Nervous System and Movement Regulation", RA Durinyan, MD, was engaged in medical research.

In the work on the section, the authors of the "Medicine" publishing house - associate professor AV Gubar and professor VL Gubar render invaluable assistance to the authors. The authors express their deep gratitude to them.

We will be grateful to the readers, especially the teachers of medical institutes, for critical remarks and indications of the deficiencies discovered in the section.

General laws of physiology and basic physiological concepts

Organism's functions
The subject of physiology is the functions of the living organism and its parts. Therefore, in starting the exposition of physiology, we must first of all look at the concepts of " organism " and " function ".