The Proctology | Diseases of the colon and rectum

Diseases of the colon and rectum

Diseases of the colon and rectum have recently become more common. There are many reasons for this - a sedentary, sedentary lifestyle, the features of modern human nutrition, the impact of environmental changes. The section tells about the achievements of proctology, about the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the most common diseases of the colon and rectum.

Diseases of the colon and rectum have been met before, quite often, but recently there has been a certain tendency towards their increase. Therefore, the wide spread among the population of hemorrhoids, cracks in the anus, proctitis, colitis and other diseases remains a serious problem for the most diverse specialists - surgeons, therapists, gastroenterologists, infectious diseases, etc. In clinical practice, diseases of this kind, as well as functional disorders of the colon, meet almost every day.

A serious obstacle in the fight against proctological diseases is the well-known fact that many patients, because of false modesty, conceal their ailment, hesitate for a long time to turn to doctors and continue to suffer from various unpleasant sensations in the anus and rectum, which, naturally, can not but affect the state of their nervous system and work capacity .


Meanwhile, proctology has recently been extremely developed. According to VD Fedorov and co-authors of the disease of the rectum and large intestine, an average of 306 out of 1000 examined. Precancerous diseases of the colon make up 37.3%, cancerous diseases - 2.6% (out of 1 million proctologic patients).

However, if the statistical evidence of the comparative prevalence of colon cancer is more or less reliable, then the materials on functional and inflammatory bowel disease require more careful evaluation and scientific analysis. This is due to the fact that in a wide clinical practice the diagnosis of chronic colitis, for example, was mainly based on clinical symptoms. At the same time, objective endoscopic (colonoscopy) and morphological (colon biopsy) studies show that inflammatory diseases of the thick bears are not so common and, according to our data, are detected in 28% of 500 patients with a primary diagnosis of "chronic colitis," and the vast majority patients (72%) suffer from various functional intestinal disorders that develop against the background of diseases in the upper parts of the digestive tract. The mechanism of functional diseases of the colon has not been fully clarified - it is very complicated. There is no doubt that neurosises of the intestine of a psychogenic nature constitute a significant group. The great importance in the pathogenesis of diseases has a hormonal effect.

Experience shows that colon diseases often accompany various pathological processes in the digestive system ( chronic gastritis , peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer, etc.). The direct dependence of violations of the motor activity of the colon on a significant increase in the acidity of the gastric juice has been established reliably. In such patients, even during periods of remission of peptic ulcer, for example, persistent constipation and other functional disorders of the intestine remain. In patients with chronic gastritis with a decreased secretory function of the stomach, hypotension of the colon is very often observed. These and many other facts indicate a close, inseparable connection of all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, all its "floors."

The main purpose of these articles is to give doctors of various specialties a clear idea of ​​diseases of the rectum and large intestine, the factors leading to their occurrence, as well as therapeutic (mostly conservative) and preventive measures. Special issues of surgical treatment, in particular details of surgical interventions, have been missed here in principle, because they concern the competence of narrow specialists.

We stopped in more or less detail on some, indeed the most common, lesions of the colon and rectum. The reader probably could be convinced that the success of diagnosis and therapy of many diseases, which we told about, depends to a large extent on the patient's care for his health, on the experience and qualification of the doctor who should notice and eliminate the danger threatening the patient in time.