- Primary and secondary prevention
- Physical methods of prevention of certain diseases of the heart and blood vessels
- Is it possible to prevent diseases of the joints and spine?
- Gout and its prevention
- What you need to know about rehabilitation
- How to maintain the effect of secondary prevention
Physical treatment and prophylaxis are increasingly being prescribed by a doctor. How physical methods act on the patient's body, how to use them correctly in order to prevent various diseases and prevent their exacerbations, is described in the section.
The section is designed for a wide range of readers.
In the age of scientific and technological revolution, people are well aware that prevention, that is, the prevention of disease, is a powerful means to preserve health. But it is not so easy to find the reasons underlying the development of diseases, and to identify effective measures with the help of which they could be prevented. These complex theoretical and practical questions grow into a whole problem that has always been, is and will be very difficult, because it is inexhaustible, as life itself is inexhaustible in its knowledge.
Until recently, many doctors believed that finding the cause (etiology) of the disease was sufficient to use medical measures aimed at combating diseases. But science now knows that knowledge of the etiology of various diseases does not yet provide a sufficient understanding of the mechanism of their development (pathogenesis). The effect of treatment and preventive measures can be effective only when they are pathogenetic.
Therefore, prevention, in the broad sense of the word, is based not only on clarifying the etiology, but also on disclosing pathogenesis, which essentially determines the development of each disease. It should be noted that the preventive trend in modern medicine has its theoretical and practical aspects.
Currently, medical scientists distinguish primary and secondary prevention, each of which has specific goals and has specific directions. Primary prevention involves preventing the onset and development of the disease. For its implementation, it is necessary not only to eliminate the immediate causes, but also to promote the normal formation of a person from early childhood, increase the body’s resistance and eliminate adverse working and living conditions. This requires major social measures (improvement of the external environment and working conditions, provision of normal housing, improvement of social and hygienic measures, hygienic education of a person and his full development) aimed at improving health and increasing the life expectancy of people.
Secondary prevention provides the possibility of preventing exacerbations of chronic diseases that contribute to the reduction of working capacity, the emergence of premature disability. To eliminate the serious consequences of the disease, each person should strengthen their health, make rational use of measures recommended by a doctor to prevent the onset and progression of diseases, especially those that are called diseases of modern civilization.
However, in order to know the essence of these diseases, it is necessary to have specific ideas about the causes and mechanisms of their development. This will help to rationally use methods of prevention, including physical ones.
At a session of the Academy of Medical Sciences on April 9, 1981, the Minister of Health of the USSR, S. P. Burenkov, stressed: “The decisions of the XXVI Congress of the CPSU oblige us to do a lot of work to fundamentally improve the activities of polyclinics, dispensaries, outpatient clinics and other primary health care institutions ... to address issues related to increasing the level of preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic work of clinics. " This means that it is necessary to raise the level of primary and secondary prevention, identify early forms of diseases and apply effective treatment and preventive measures that would prevent the development of various diseases, if it can be said so, back in the “germ”.
Without affecting social preventive measures that are of great general biological and socio-economic importance, it must be emphasized that medical measures play an important role not only for primary but also for secondary prevention.
From medical preventive measures, natural and transformed factors are of great importance. This is especially important for those patients who are often prescribed medications that sometimes stop having a high therapeutic and prophylactic effect.
The community of physicians with the broad masses of the population is the key to the success of improving people's health and increasing their ability to work.Go
Prevention (from the Greek. Prophylaktikos - safety) - a set of preventive and health measures to protect and promote the health of an individual or a whole team. Depending on this, individual (personal) and public (social) prevention is distinguished. At different stages of historical development, prevention took different forms depending on the class structure of society, the level of cultural development, the prevailing mores, customs, religious beliefs, the degree of development of science.
In modern capitalist states, the scope and nature of preventive measures are dictated mainly by the interests of the ruling class.
Under pressure from the workers 'revolutionary movement and in order to preserve labor for its greater exploitation, the bourgeois state is forced to take certain measures for the protection of workers' labor and social insurance.
Bourgeois scientists, apologists and ideologists of the bourgeois system, striving to justify a negative attitude towards mass social preventive measures, preach pseudoscientific theories about alleged genetic inheritance of high incidence of workers, about the dangers of social preventive measures supposedly contributing to the survival of “biologically low-value” groups of the population, about “expediency” to be guided in the field of health care by the principles of “non-interference of the state”, “personal freedom”, i.e. individual dual care of everyone about their health. Social Darwinism, eugenics, Freudianism, psychosomatics, human ecology and other theories aimed at the biologization of social phenomena serve the same thing. All sorts of bourgeois reformist theories of public health aim to show that it is possible to ensure by the reforms the necessary protection of the health of the working people even under capitalism. In contrast to these assertions 3. P. Solovyov said that medicine in capitalist countries cannot take the path of broad public prevention without encroaching on the very foundations of the capitalist system.
Public prevention in the USSR is a system of complex state and public socio-economic and medical measures aimed at preventing the occurrence and spread of diseases and at strengthening the health of the population in every way possible. Successful socialist construction is the basis of social prevention in the USSR. The implementation of the tasks of prevention in the USSR is not only the work of health authorities and institutions, but also part of the activities of all government bodies and government, economic bodies and public organizations.
Prevention in our country, in the words of N. A. Semashko, should be understood not narrowly as a departmental task of the health authorities, but broadly and deeply as a concern of the Soviet state for improving the health of the Soviet people.
The Soviet government has created all the prerequisites for carrying out the necessary preventive measures to protect the health of the population in accordance with all its social policies in the interests of the working people.
Decrees on land, peace, social insurance, the first code of labor laws indicate that the Soviet state from the first years of its existence has embarked on a broad path of social prevention. V. I. Lenin, in his work and writings, paid great attention to issues of social prevention. The party's program, adopted by the Eighth Party Congress in March 1919, proclaimed the preventive direction of Soviet health care: “The basis of its activities in the field of public health protection of the RKP is primarily to carry out extensive sanitary and health measures aimed at preventing the development of diseases ... ". And in the further expansion and strengthening of preventive measures in the Soviet public health system, attention was paid to the decisions of congresses and conferences of the Communist Party and the plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU. The Program of the CPSU, adopted by the 22nd Party Congress, provides for the implementation of a broad system of socio-economic and medical measures aimed at protecting and continuously improving the health of the population. The focus of attention is on the tasks of disease prevention: “A broad program will be implemented aimed at preventing and drastically reducing diseases, eliminating mass infectious diseases, and further increasing life expectancy.” The same objectives are pursued by the measures indicated in the Program to meet the vital needs of the population. The USSR Constitution provides every citizen with the right to work (Art. 118), rest (Art. 119), material security in old age, as well as in the case of illness and disability (Art. 120); in addition, measures are envisaged for the state protection of the rights of women and children (see Protection of Motherhood and Childhood) - all of this is of great preventive value. All Soviet social legislation, including health care legislation, is also prophylactic. Mighty factors of prevention are the enormous year-to-year increasing housing and communal construction, significantly improved nutrition of the population, wage growth, pensions, reduced working hours, saving wages during illness, ensuring timely free treatment, healthy recreation, widespread use of preventive clinics, holiday homes, physical education institutions.
In the USSR, where the economic law of socialism operates, aimed at satisfying the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the whole society, the requirements of prevention are taken into account in all socialist national economic and cultural construction. All major issues of national economic construction in our country are resolved, in connection with the tasks of protecting public health, protecting it from possible adverse environmental influences with regard to hygiene requirements. A particularly important place in Soviet prevention is hygienic regulation, which more and more encompasses all branches of production, technological processes, the state of the environment, working conditions, study, food, and rest. This contributes to the implementation of the main task of prevention in the USSR - the promotion of health and disability, the harmonious development of the physical and spiritual forces of the Soviet people. It affects the unity of socio-economic and preventive goals and objectives. In the USSR, extensive research work is being carried out on the scientific substantiation of hygienic standards in various areas of the national economy, and the results of this work in the area of occupational health, communal hygiene, food hygiene and school hygiene are very great. The obligation to comply with these standards is established by applicable law.
The progress of technology entails success in the field of prevention. The improvement of industrial technology leads to a significant reduction of harmful substances in the environment. In connection with the automation and mechanization of production, with a sharp reduction in manual processes, with significant use of electronics, nuclear physics, chemistry, cybernetics, computing devices, remote methods of production management, the widespread scientific development of physiology and occupational health in the USSR takes on enormous preventive importance in the new conditions of work and rest in connection with the tasks of the scientific organization of labor. The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of January 14, 1960 "On measures to further improve medical care and public health of the USSR" pays great attention to prevention. Closely related to the problems of prevention is the law on nature conservation in the RSFSR, adopted on October 27, 1960. Particularly important is Art. 12 of this law is devoted to the issues of sanitary protection of nature, including atmospheric air, surface and groundwater, soil. This law imposes the responsibility of ministries, departments, economic bodies in designing enterprises and structures to develop and introduce technological processes that ensure maximum processing of raw materials and fuels that do not give harmful waste into the atmosphere, water and soil. Extensive activities carried out in the USSR to transform nature (afforestation, drying of wetlands, development of deserts, sand fixing, hydroconstructions, etc.), lead to an improvement in the living conditions of the population and, therefore, also have preventive value. In the Soviet health care system, prevention has a leading place.
The entire system and activities of health care institutions are structured in such a way that the specific tasks of prophylaxis dictated by the characteristics of the age and sex contingents of the population, their living conditions, the nature of their morbidity and its etiology (preventive work of children's and women's clinics, polyclinics, dispensaries) are taken into account in its appropriate units. health centers at industrial enterprises, teenage cabinets, etc.).
In carrying out preventive measures, a significant role is played by preventive and current sanitary supervision, carried out by state sanitary inspection bodies. They, according to the "Regulations on State Sanitary Supervision of the USSR", are given greater rights to ensure strict control over the observance of all established sanitary standards, rules and requirements (see. Sanitary legislation).
Especially important sanitary supervision when planning and landscaping populated areas; he must control housing construction, measures for sanitary protection of water, air and soil, labor protection, etc.
Advances in hygienic science and the activities of a powerful network of sanitary-epidemiological institutions, hygienic departments and the departments of epidemiology of medical institutes and institutes of advanced medical education play an important role in the development of the preventive direction of Soviet medicine. Preventive orientation is also a characteristic feature of the development of all clinical disciplines in the USSR, in which due attention is paid to issues of social etiology (labor and household factors), early detection of diseases, taking measures to improve the patient’s environment, rational employment, strengthening the body (physical therapy, nutrition, etc.) and enhancing its adaptive capacity.
Prevention is organically linked to curative activity. Many outstanding domestic clinicians highly appreciated prevention and recognized the need to combine medical care with prophylactic measures (see Medicine). In the USSR, treatment is not opposed to prevention, but merges in an inseparable unity, which has found the most vivid expression in the dispensary method of treatment and preventive services for the population.
Doctors, carrying out the synthesis of treatment and prevention, seek to ensure the earliest recognition of the disease, the correct treatment of patients, the necessary conditions and the mode of work, rest, nutrition, and prevent recurrences of the disease. From these tasks, the duties of the attending physician also follow to familiarize themselves with the social etiology of the disease, especially with the working and living conditions of the patients who come to him and in every possible way to help, through appropriate organizations, to improve these conditions. All this should be reflected in the case histories.
Of great importance in the prevention is the implementation by the attending physicians of periodic monitoring of the long-term results of treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, sanatorium-resort treatment), proper use of preventive hospitalization, timely referral to a dispensary, a rest home, a sanatorium, the appointment of a diet, rational employment in accordance with health condition. Clinical examination of healthy contingents of the population, carried out in a planned manner [children, adolescents, pregnant women and mothers, workers of leading workshops and professions and engaged in occupational hazards] is of great importance for the prevention of diseases.
In the arsenal of means of prevention, a powerful weapon is health education (see), which allows to prevent the occurrence of many diseases. “There is no prevention without sanitary education” (N. A. Semashko).
The preventive examinations of workers and the preventive and recreational measures resulting from them in relation to individual workers and entire groups are also an important area of prevention. Important for the further development of the preventive direction of Soviet medicine is the indication of the CPSU Program that "... medical science should focus on the discovery of means of preventing and overcoming diseases such as cancer, viral, cardiovascular and other diseases dangerous for the life of people."
The role of prevention in the fight against infectious diseases. In the prevention of infectious diseases, the achievements of domestic epidemiology and microbiology, immunology, especially in studying the pathogenesis of infections, immunity, microbial variability problems, early microbiological diagnostics, specific prophylaxis, immunoprophylaxis and treatment of a number of infectious diseases are widely used. The role of prevention in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases; the elimination of harmful influencing factors associated with adverse labor and living conditions leads to a reduction in the number of cardiovascular diseases. Psychoprophylaxis and mental hygiene are prominent in the doctor’s activities.
The principles of prevention are the basis for the fight against tuberculosis, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, urinary organs, diseases of the nervous system, malignant neoplasms, etc. The importance of preventive measures ensuring the proper physical development of the younger generations is invaluable. Here the foreground is physical education, which is a powerful means of preserving and strengthening the health of people of all ages. In the USSR, a powerful network of physical education institutions has been created, and mass work is being carried out among the population to engage in physical education classes. The successful implementation of preventive measures contributes to mass public initiative in enterprises, institutions, housing administrations, collective farms, state farms, mass popular movements for sanitary culture, for cleanliness in cities and rural areas, health days, numerous sanitary commissions, sanitary posts, public health officials.
In developing the theoretical foundations of prevention and the practical forms of its implementation in the medical care of the population in various medical and sanitary institutions, great merit belongs to social hygiene (see) and the organization of health care, whose teaching in medical schools equips doctors with the necessary knowledge. Elements of prevention are included in the teaching of all major medical disciplines. Preventive orientation - a characteristic feature of the research work of research institutes, departments of medical institutes and institutes of advanced training of doctors. The widespread development of preventive activities in the activities of medical institutions against the background of the steady increase in the material well-being and cultural level of the Soviet people, the development of medical science, the improvement of the quality of medical services for the population played a crucial role in reducing morbidity, eliminating a number of infectious diseases, drastically reducing general and infant mortality and a significant extension average life expectancy of the Soviet man. Soviet prevention has acquired great international significance - its principles, forms and methods of implementation have received wide recognition in the countries of socialist, popular democracy and in other countries. See also Health.