The task of psychiatry - one of the branches of clinical medicine - is to study the origin and nature of mental illnesses, their clinical manifestations, treatment and prevention. The scope of the tasks of psychiatry is also the examination: forensic psychiatric, military, work capacity of patients with mental disorders, etc.The
Psychiatry is a field of clinical medicine that studies the manifestations, etiology and pathogenesis of mental illnesses, their prevention, treatment and organization of care for the mentally ill. The field of psychiatry research is not limited to psychoses (the so-called great psychiatry), but extends to neuroses (see) and psychopathy (see) - the so-called small, or borderline, psychiatry. Psychiatry is divided into general psychiatry (psychopathology), studying the symptomatology of mental illnesses, and private psychiatry, which investigates individual mental illnesses.
In teaching the course of psychiatry, the task is to give students the necessary theoretical knowledge and practical skills for recognizing diseases and providing primary medical care to patients with mental disorders.
A future doctor, regardless of his specialty, should know whether he is dealing with a mentally healthy or sick person. If this is mentally ill, then you should choose the type of help that is necessary for him. Given the mental state of the patient, the question of the form of psychiatric care must be resolved. The help can be emergency (introduction of medicines, referral to a hospital, etc.) or in the form of justified recommendations.
In addition to solving practical medical issues, it is the doctor's responsibility, especially the hygienic profile, to carry out preventive work. Prevention is one of the distinctive features of Soviet medicine and plays an important role in the struggle for the health of Soviet people. Effective prevention leads to the prevention of not only mental illnesses, but also various forms of somatic pathology, in the origin of which emotional stress can be important. A major contribution to general health prevention and psycho-prophylaxis is made by general hygiene and psycho-hygiene. These disciplines, developing appropriate problems, give recommendations for strengthening physical and mental health of people, which reduces the risk of their various diseases and contributes to the harmonious development of the individual.
In our country, widely and actively at the national level, measures are being taken to eliminate various hazards that negatively affect human health. There is a struggle against environmental pollution, professional hazards are eliminated in production conditions, etc. In the Soviet Union, there are no social prerequisites that could adversely affect people's health. The rights of Soviet citizens to education, work, free qualified medical care, etc. are guaranteed by the constitution and regulated by laws. Medical assistance, provided by comprehensive general and specialized services, ensures the identification, treatment of patients, as well as continuity in their observation.
Psychiatry as one of the major medical disciplines includes many scientific and practical problems. One of such problems, including both theoretical and practical aspects, is the establishment of the prevalence and form of the manifestation of mental disorders. Data on the prevalence of mental disorders and the peculiarities of their manifestation in the population provide scientifically substantiated material for the planning of psychiatric care, elucidation of etiologically significant factors, and for the development on their basis of effective preventive measures.The
Mental diseases in their manifestations are heterogeneous. Assessment of the prevalence of their individual forms, manifestations should be conducted on the right methodological basis. A departure from this principle leads to false theoretical and practical conclusions.
Soviet psychiatrists regard mental illness as the result of a disorder in the activity of the brain, leading to a violation of the ability to reflect and to cognize the external myrtle, to change the state of health and consciousness of one's personality. Disturbance of brain activity can occur under the influence of external (infection, intoxication, trauma, impaired brain nutrition, psychogeny , etc.) or internal causes, metabolic defects, degenerative processes due to both predisposition and a number of other factors. As a result, the behavior and adaptation of patients to the conditions of life is partially or completely impaired.
Violations of the brain in patients with the nature of manifestation and severity are different and depend on the characteristics of the mental illness, the form and stage of its course. So, for diseases that cause a shallow disorder of brain function, the ability to reflect and cognize the outside world is usually not disturbed, and mental abnormalities in patients are predominantly manifested in changes in well-being and difficulties in social adaptation. In diseases accompanied by a deeper damage to the brain, the behavior and attitudes of the patient can completely change; in the perception and awareness of the environment, the determining motives are painful motives. The first group of diseases is called borderline disorders, which include mainly neuroses and psychopathies. They occupy an intermediate position between mental health and severe mental disorders. The second group consists of psychoses (in the past, patients with such disorders were called insane). Each of these groups of diseases is heterogeneous and includes various diseases that have their own nature, the features of the clinic and the prognosis.
A differentiated definition of the state of mentally ill patients, taking into account the peculiarities of their disease, is of great importance. Many studies have been devoted to this issue, on the basis of which various classifications of mental illnesses have been proposed. The most scientifically substantiated would be a classification based on the etiological principle. However, knowledge about the origin of most mental illnesses is still insufficient, and in general the systematics of mental illness is based on etiological, clinical and other principles. In addition, the system of classification of mental illnesses is influenced by general theoretical attitudes prevailing at this or that stage in the development of psychiatry. Soviet psychiatrists, unlike many foreigners, consider it possible to systematize mental illnesses, as well as somatic diseases, on the basis of a common etiology, pathogenesis and clinic.
The study of individual nosological units in theoretical and practical terms is the subject of private psychiatry. The study of the general features of mental illness, their particular signs (symptoms), individual psychopathological conditions (symptom complexes - syndromes), pathogenetic mechanisms of psychopathological disorders is the task of general psychopathology. The study of psychological patterns in the formation of mental disorders is the subject of pathopsychology.
Diagnostic assessment of patients is conducted on the basis of the current general international or national classification of mental illnesses. Unfortunately, they do not have psychiatrists, despite the importance of obtaining reliable data on the true prevalence of mental disorders. This circumstance depends on a number of reasons: mentally ill patients , especially those with unspoken forms of mental disorders, rarely seek help from a psychiatrist. The reasons for this may be the lack of a critical attitude towards one's condition, the unwillingness to be registered with psychiatric doctors, etc. There are no clear generally recognized criteria for delimiting a number of light borderline forms of mental disorders from those that may be within the framework of the "psychic norm". The latter can be attributed to individual characterological characteristics of people, transient mild mental disorders (subclinical manifestations). In this regard, data on the prevalence of mentally ill in the population, obtained, as a rule, by the results of treatment of patients for inpatient or outpatient psychiatric care, are marked by large fluctuations. According to these data, 10 to 20% of the population needs psychiatric care. Data on the number of patients with severe mental disorders (psychoses) are much less susceptible to fluctuations and constitute an average of 1-3% of the total population.