The Sports medicine | Diseases and injuries in sports

Sports medicine

Sports medicine is an area of ​​medicine that studies the problems of physical culture and sports. The main objectives of sports medicine: the study of the impact on the body of physical exercises as a factor in promoting health, improving efficiency and longevity, substantiating the rational methods of physical exercise and sports training. Sports medicine also studies environmental conditions that promote the effectiveness of physical exercises, develops measures to prevent and treat the harmful consequences of improper application of physical exercises. Along with mass observations (see Medical control), experimental studies are also conducted in laboratories, hospitals, medical and sports clinics (see), gyms, in stadiums. See also Sport, Physical Culture .

Diseases and injuries in sports

The section presents methods of diagnostics, treatment and prevention of diseases in athletes. For sports physicians and general medical practitioners.


Diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract

Kidney diseases represent one of the most difficult areas for diagnosis due to the fact that their symptoms are often not expressed. Diagnosis is particularly difficult for athletes who may have such physiological changes in the kidney and urinary tract that make it difficult to detect their pathological lesions in a timely manner.


Diseases and damages of the nervous system

Modern sport makes great demands on the human nervous system. It is obvious that the diseases of the nervous system, both central and peripheral, as well as its damage, can, on the one hand, hamper the sporting activity, on the other, arise when it is used irrationally.

This chapter presents data on the most common diseases and injuries of the athlete's nervous system.

Questions about the incidence of athletes, in particular the pathological changes in internal organs and the nervous system, are becoming more acute every year. Continuous growth of sports results requires for their achievement more intensive training, which, of course, increases the risk of overloading, with all the ensuing consequences. For example, the number of athletes with heart rhythm disorders has increased significantly, chronic cholecystitis has become more evident, etc. Unfortunately, despite the increasing urgency of these issues, they are being developed in sports medicine extremely insufficiently, and some do not pay attention at all. And if there are certain successes in sports cardiology, sports dermatology, otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology , gynecology , etc. are not really being developed today, although there is an urgent need for it.

In sports traumatology , along with undoubted achievements in the surgical treatment of severe injuries, very little attention is paid to diseases and injuries to the muscles and myoencephalic apparatus, bones and periosteum, joints and articular bags that do not require surgical intervention. These surgical diseases, which account for 70% of all musculoskeletal injuries in athletes, require skilled surgical care, but are not studied to the extent that they require it.

The main goal of sports medicine is to study ways to increase the skill of athletes, improve fitness, etc. This is facilitated by some duality in the position of sports medicine as a science. On the one hand, it is connected with the State Sports Committee, in the subordination of which there are quite powerful departments of sports medicine of the institutes of physical education and sports medicine departments of research institutes. Naturally, the State Sports Committee sets before its sports physicians the issues in which it is interested. Issues of pathology do not apply to them, and in them the leadership of the State Committee of Sports is not competent enough. As for the Ministry of Health, although the entire medical and sports service (dispensaries, physicians in physical culture, etc.) and is under its control, it works, in effect, "commissioned" by the State Committee for Sports. The Ministry of Health has so many of its problems that sports medicine among them occupies a very small place, especially since the idea that sports and diseases are incompatible exists in the Ministry of Health.