Preface to the textbook
The subject of forensic medicine and the history of its development. Procedural and organizational basis of the forensic medical service
Forensic Tanatology and Examination of the Corpse
Damage and death from acute oxygen starvation
Damage of mechanical origin
Damage from other external influences
Poisonings and their forensic medical establishment
Forensic examination of victims, suspects and accused
Forensic science and practice in the implementation of health problems
Forensic medicine is a branch of medicine that represents a body of knowledge and special research methods used to address issues of a medical and biological nature that arise in the work of law enforcement agencies, as well as specific health problems.
The circle of scientific interests and resolved issues connects forensic medicine with various branches of medicine (pathological anatomy, surgery , obstetrics, pediatrics , etc.), as well as a number of other disciplines: forensics, civil and criminal law and process, physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and etc. This causes wide application in forensic medicine of approaches and techniques used in other areas. In forensic science, specific methods and methods of research are being developed, such as the diagnosis of the prescription of death, the imposition of a tool for trauma and damage mechanisms, etc. A widespread method in both scientific research in forensic medicine and in the examination was an experimental method, including modeling. This method allows you to reproduce specific events, most fully evaluate them and comprehensively answer questions arising in the process of inquiry, investigation or trial.
Widely used analysis of the sectional and clinical material, allowing to identify the causes of sudden death, injuries, poisonings, errors of doctors and defects in the professional activities of medical personnel. This analysis is the basis for determining prevention measures and improving the quality of medical work.
In forensic medicine, it is customary to allocate a procedural and organizational section that examines the content and interpretation of laws and departmental orders, rights, duties, the limits of competence and responsibility of forensic experts, and the organization of forensic medicine. The subject of forensic medicine includes the theory and practice of forensic medical examination, that is, the direct application of medical knowledge for the purposes of investigative and judicial practice. The content of forensic medicine as a science is:
- Forensic medical thanatology (the doctrine of death and postmortal processes);
- Forensic medical traumatology (the doctrine about damages and mechanisms of their occurrence);
- Forensic medical obstetrics and gynecology (studying issues of contentious sexual conditions, etc.);
- Forensic toxicology (methods of diagnosis and prevention of poisoning);
- study of hypoxic conditions (the causes of their occurrence, morphological manifestations and methods of diagnosis, the effects of critical temperatures, electric and radiant energy, barotrauma);
- research of physical evidence of biological origin;
- borderline (forensic science) issues of identity identification, instruments of trauma, expertise on the materials of investigative and judicial cases.
Objects of forensic medical examination are corpses, victims, accused and other persons, material evidence of biological origin, as well as materials and documents.
Practical application of forensic medicine , reflecting the influence of legal norms on it, shows that these norms and legal sciences have always had a socio-political character and are subordinated to the interests of the ruling class.
Forensic science in the USSR and its practical application (examination) have a fundamental difference from the forensic medicine of bourgeois states. From the very beginning of the formation of the Soviet forensic medical examination and throughout the subsequent development, it acquired a number of characteristic features. First of all, it is a state-organized system that ensures the development and application of scientific evidence in the investigation and judicial review of criminal and civil cases. For the objectification of expert evidence, modern scientific achievements of natural science, medicine, physics and chemistry are used . Forensic medical expertise provides every possible assistance to health authorities in improving medical care for the population and fighting to reduce morbidity and mortality.
A characteristic feature and peculiarity of modern scientific works performed in scientific and practical forensic institutions of the USSR is the mandatory use of laboratory techniques, most often their rational complexes (techniques used in physics, biophysics, histochemistry, biochemistry, serology, cytology , etc. .), which increases the reliability of the expert's conclusion and its evidentiary value. The results of scientific research conducted by forensic doctors and chemists are published in periodicals and monographs.
Emission spectrography, absorption spectral analysis, spectrophotometry, photoelectrocolorimetry, X-ray diffraction (in its various forms), biochemical and biophysical studies, electrophoresis on paper, immunoelectrophoresis were widely used in studies of forensic objects (corpses, victims and other persons, material evidence). , chromatography (in its various modifications), the reactions of electro-precipitation, immunoelectro-precipitation, absorption-elution, "mixed" agglutination and etc.
To train doctors in forensic medicine in the USSR, unified teaching of forensic medicine is carried out under a single program for medical, pediatric and sanitary-hygienic faculties. In accordance with this, educational and educational methodical literature is published.
In the teaching of forensic science, the formulation of scientific research and the practical activities of forensic experts use materials and methods that serve health care purposes: preventing injuries, intoxications, sudden and sudden death, and preventing errors in the diagnostic and therapeutic work of doctors.
Postgraduate training of forensic experts in the USSR is carried out in residency, internship and in the specialization of doctors enlisted in the established posts of forensic experts. To ensure the high quality of forensic medical expertise, it is planned to periodically improve the qualifications of experts at the relevant departments of the institutes for the improvement of doctors, as well as on special cycles of retraining and workplaces for mastering certain new techniques.