Examination (examination) of victims, suspects, defendants and other persons is one of the most frequent. The relevant articles of the Criminal Procedure Code of the Union Republics provide for mandatory examination of matters relating to the investigation of crimes against human life and health. However, forensic expert practice shows that for the organs of justice special medical knowledge are necessary when examining for other reasons. Below are the main reasons and objectives for forensic examination (examination).
Determination of injuries and illnesses:
1) the nature and severity of injuries and other issues related to this;
2) permanent disability (in everyday life);
3) aggravations and disaggruvations with:
4) Simulation and dissimulation with:
5) artificially induced diseases;
6) artificially caused damage;
7) scarring as a consequence of injury or disease;
8) infection with venereal disease and AIDS;
9) general health.
Definition of sexual conditions:
1) controversial sex (hermaphroditism);
3) virginity and former sexual intercourse;
4) sexual ability in women:
a) to copulate;
b) to conceive;
5) sexual ability in men:
a) to copulate;
b) to fertilization;
6) pregnancy ;
7) abortion ;
Examination of sexual offenses about:
1) forced sexual intercourse (rape);
2) lewd acts (in relation to minors);
3) sexual intercourse with a person who has not reached puberty;
Expertise on other issues:
1) determine the age;
2) identification (identity) of the person;
3) alcohol intoxication;
4) exclusion of paternity and maternity (in case of controversial paternity, motherhood and suspicion of substitution of children in the maternity hospital ).
Most often there is a need to establish the presence, nature, limitation and severity of damage. If the studies are carried out according to the decisions of the investigating authorities or the court, then in these cases they are in the nature of expertise and are recorded in the form of an “expert opinion”. In many cases, when it comes to causing light bodily harm, provided for by Art. 112 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR, criminal cases are not initiated, the case goes to court on the complaint of the victim in the order of the so-called private prosecution. The examination of victims in these cases is carried out according to the written direction of law enforcement agencies and the results are recorded in the form of the “Act of forensic medical examination”.