Physical evidence, according to Art. 83 of the Criminal Procedural Code of the RSFSR are items that served as instruments of crime or were objects of criminal actions of the accused, as well as money and other valuables acquired in a criminal way, and all other items that can serve as means to detect a crime, establish the actual circumstances of the case, identify the perpetrators or denying the charge or mitigating the guilt of the accused. As material evidence in forensic practice, objects of biological origin are examined - blood, semen, hair, sweat, saliva, nasal and vaginal secretions, urine, feces , bones, various tissues and organs on the objects of the crime, clothing of the victim or remand . According to Art. 69 of the Criminal Procedure Code of the RSFSR material evidence in the Soviet criminal process is one type of evidence.
Forensic examination of physical evidence is carried out only on the basis of a decision of the investigator or a court decision in the biological departments of the Bureau of Forensic Medicine. When they are sent for examination, together with the accompanying attitude and the decree on the appointment of the examination, they are sent: a copy of the record of the scene of the incident, a copy of the conclusion of the forensic medical examination of the corpse, examination of a living person or an extract from them; a copy of the protocol for the removal of blood, saliva and hair samples, if any. The resolution briefly describes the circumstances of the case, issues to be resolved, a list of items sent for investigation, indicating their affiliation, the content of the testimony of witnesses, defendants, victims regarding the origin of traces on objects, lists materials sent as blood samples, saliva, hair, etc. .Go
Having examined the materials carefully submitted by the investigator or the court, the expert biologist examines the package with physical evidence and checks its safety. If the parcel’s integrity is violated, the expert informs the investigating authorities about this, in the presence of two laboratory staffers, opens the package and verifies the existence of the physical evidence sent with the list in the investigator’s decision or court ruling. If there is a discrepancy, an act is drawn up in which the established difference is indicated. The act is signed by an expert and two employees of the laboratory present at the opening of the package. One copy of the act is sent to the investigator. Then the expert can proceed to the investigation of material evidence. If necessary, the expert may request additional blood, saliva, hair, and other samples from the investigator. The physical evidence at the end of the study is packaged and returned with the expert’s opinion to the investigator or court.
Traces of blood can be found on the instrument of crime, on the clothing and body of the criminal, on the surrounding objects, on the clothing and body of the victim, etc.
With their study in the present time can be resolved the following questions.
1. Is there blood in the test object?
2. Does blood in a spot belong to a person or an animal?
3. What kind of animal blood belongs to the spot?
4. Can the blood belong to a specific person (suspect, victim, etc.) or is blood belonging to such a person excluded?
5. Does blood belong to a man or a woman?
6. Does blood belong to an adult or baby?
7. From which area of the body does the blood come from?
8. What is the age of staining?
9. What is the amount of bleeding that forms a stain?
10. Doesn't blood belong to a pregnant woman?
11. Is there no bleeding from menstrual blood?
12. Is a stain formed by the blood of a living person or a corpse?
13. What is the mechanism for the formation of blood traces?