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Inspection of the corpse at the site of detection

The grounds and procedure for the production by the investigator of the inspection of the scene are determined by the Criminal Procedure Code (Art. 178 and 179 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the RSFSR and the relevant articles of the Code of Criminal Procedure of other Union Republics). It is also provided that the investigator is entitled to invite to participate in the inspection of the relevant specialist, which may be a specialist doctor in the field of forensic medicine. His participation in an external examination of a corpse at the place of detection is directly established by the Criminal Procedure Code (Article 180 of the Criminal Procedure Code of the RSFSR and the relevant articles of other Union republics), and the actions are governed by the “Rules of work of a specialist in forensic medicine during external examination of a corpse at the place of its detection (incident). " As a specialist in the field of forensic medicine, a doctor, a forensic expert, should be involved in the examination of a corpse at the place of detection, and if it is impossible for him to participate, another doctor (Article 180 of the Code of Criminal Procedure).

According to the “Rules”, a specialist in the field of forensic medicine identifies signs at the place where the corpse was found, which allows to judge about the time of death, the nature and mechanism of injury, and other data relevant to investigative actions; consults the investigator during the examination of the corpse at the place of detection and on the subsequent conduct of a forensic medical examination; assists the investigator in detecting traces similar to blood, semen and other secretions of a person, hair, various substances, objects, tools and other objects; promotes their seizure; draws the attention of the investigator to all the features that are relevant for this case; gives explanations about the actions he performs.

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Most often, the place where the corpse was discovered is at the same time the place where the violent death occurred, or it was followed in circumstances related to possible violence. However, after inflicting violence, not only grave but also fatal, the victim may for some time retain the ability to take active and independent actions, moving (running, leaving, crawling), sometimes even for a considerable distance. It must be borne in mind that the corpse may be deliberately moved to another place by the criminal to conceal the crime committed by him (burial in the ground, throwing it into the water, etc.) or there may be an imitation of an accident (for example, in a supposedly road or railway accident; when a criminal dismemberment of a corpse, its parts are usually found in different places).

Under all of these conditions, it may be necessary for a specialist in the field of forensic medicine to participate in the examination of the body at the place of its detection.

At the scene, even when there is no corpse, it is necessary to conduct a thorough inspection. Its main task is the identification and seizure of material evidence and various traces indicating the commission of a crime or measures taken to conceal it. At the scene of the incident can be found crime instruments, traces of blood, hair and other objects of biological origin, as well as evidence of burning, combating, scraping, painting, pasting, etc. It is necessary to organize a search for material evidence where they could not be seen by the criminal or not destroyed, for example, in the crevices of the floor, under the plinths, under heavy, unmovable furniture, etc. The scope of the inspection territory is determined by the nature of the incident under investigation, for example, occurred in a residential area eniyah, outbuildings, street, highway road, railway line and so on. d.

Inspection of the scene refers to the primary, urgent investigative actions and it must be made as soon as possible after the start of the investigation. However, the investigation and practice of forensic examination show the feasibility of conducting an inspection of the scene even after a considerable time after its occurrence and re-examination of the scene.

When inspecting the scene of the incident and the corpse at the place of its detection, it is customary to distinguish the static inspection stage, when the whole situation and objects are inspected and fixed in an unchanged position, and the dynamic inspection stage, in which the objects are rationally moved, each individually visually examined, different ones appear and below them) footprints, etc.

If the victim is found alive on arrival at the scene, then all measures should be taken to provide him with the necessary medical care. At the same time, to ensure the objectives of the investigation, it is necessary to record the location of the victim, his posture, objects on him, next to him or under him, the state of clothing, its damage and contamination, the presence of traces of blood and other secretions and liquids; In performing this function, the investigator needs the participation of a specialist in the field of forensic medicine.