Destructive poisons include a group of substances whose action on the body manifests itself mainly in violation of the structure of internal organs in the form of dystrophic and necrotic changes in the kidneys, liver, myocardium, gastrointestinal tract, brain, etc. , the physical state of the substance, as well as the state of the body. Many of them have both resorptive and local irritating properties, which is manifested in the defeat of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract. A number of poisons of this group accumulate in the body when exposed to small doses (cumulation), and therefore forensic physicians have to deal with cases of chronic poisoning with these substances.
The group of these poisons include heavy metals, metalloids and many of their compounds.
The local action of destructive poisons is more often irritating or cauterizing. The main toxicological significance of changes in the body, occurring under the influence of resorptive action of poisons. The general effect of these poisons can manifest itself in affection of the central and peripheral nervous system (paralysis, encephalopathy); violation of the activity of neuro-regulatory mechanisms, blood vessels, destruction of organs and tissues (heart, liver, kidneys, etc.).Go
Compounds of heavy metals and arsenic act on certain groups of physiologically active enzymes . The decrease in the activity of various enzymes largely determines the nature of the general toxic action of these compounds. In severe poisoning, all types of metabolism are noticeably affected, especially carbohydrate and protein. All these poisons, along with impaired function of the nervous and cardiovascular systems and changes in metabolism, have a pronounced nephrotoxic effect.
Some compounds of heavy metals and arsenic (copper sulfate, arsenic hydrogen, etc.) cause hemolysis, which is the leading symptom in the first hours and days of intoxication with these poisons.
Of the heavy metal poisonings, poisoning with mercury compounds is the most significant, and of metalloid poisoning, arsenic compounds poisoning . Other poisonings - with phosphorus and its compounds, zinc and its compounds, sodium fluoride, copper sulfate - are very rare in forensic practice.
1. What is the mechanism of action of mercury and its compounds on the human body?
2. Describe the clinical picture of mercury poisoning and its compounds.
3. What is the basis for the forensic diagnosis of death from acute mercury poisoning and its drugs?
4. What is the mechanism of action of arsenic and its compounds on the human body?
5. Give a clinical description of arsenic poisoning and its compounds.
6. What causes death in case of poisoning with mercury and arsenic compounds? What are the lethal doses of these drugs?
7. What are the conclusions of the forensic expert on the occurrence of death from acute poisoning with arsenic compounds?