In forensic medicine, damage implies a violation of the anatomical integrity or physiological functions of the organ (tissues) resulting from exposure to some environmental factor and resulting in a health disorder or death.
In medical practice, the most common damage caused by a variety of mechanical effects.
Various damages of mechanical origin are not equally common, which depends on many reasons. The combination of homogeneous injuries in certain groups of the population in similar working or living conditions is commonly referred to as injuries. There are several types of injuries.
Industrial Injuries :
2) agricultural. Non-occupational injuries:
2) sports. Traffic injuries:
4) air. War Injury:
a) combat injury
b) non-combat injury
In the practice of a forensic expert, industrial injuries are rare and usually result from non-compliance with safety regulations.Go
Agricultural injuries, as well as industrial, is associated with the introduction and development of new technology. The damage that occurs in the workplace, mostly due to violations of labor discipline, in particular with alcohol intoxication. The fight against alcoholism has an important preventive value in reducing not only industrial, but also transport and domestic injuries.
It is customary to subdivide all the means by which mechanical damage can be made into weapons — products specifically designed for attack and defense, tools — products for domestic or industrial use, and objects — all other means that are not directly intended (stick, stone, and others).
The qualification of the means to which the damage was caused, whether it is a weapon, falls within the competence of the investigating and court authorities, and therefore in forensic medicine such means are more often referred to as “tool of injury” or “damaging objects”.
When traumatizing does not matter whether the body of a person (or part of it) is at rest, but a damaging object moves or vice versa. The nature and properties of damage are determined not only by the type of object (gun, weapon), but also by energy, direction, angle and other conditions of influence. The main mechanism of injury in the action of a damaging object in relation to the human body is a blow or compression. However, there is also such an effect, in which stretching, sliding, torsion, rupture and even tearing of individual parts of the body are formed.
The tasks of the medical examiner include not only the specification of the damaging object (gun, weapon) according to the properties and characteristics of the injury, but also the allocation of the main damage that led to death.
All items (weapons, tools) that can cause mechanical damage, in forensic medicine, it is customary to subdivide, depending on how they affect crushing or blunt hard, sharp and firearms. In accordance with the mechanism of injury distinguish injuries bruised, chopped, stabbed, chopped, stabbed and cut firearms.
If in the morphology of the damage caused by blunt or sharp objects, the shape of the tool is very significant and even the determining factor, then in case of gunshot injuries, the kinetic energy of the projectile is of primary importance.
In the clinical and morphological respect, mechanical damage is divided into bruises , abrasions , wounds , tremors and ruptures of organs, dislocations, fractures , stretching and detachment .