Over the past decade, a new independent section has appeared in forensic medicine - forensic dentistry. The isolation of this section was due to the further differentiation of the medical sciences, in particular, the development of dentistry as an original medical discipline with a specialist in dentistry trained in this field of medicine.
Forensic dentistry studies dental problems in the interests of the legal practice of society. The main issues of modern forensic dentistry include:
- procedural bases of forensic dental examination;
- forensic examination of damage to the soft tissues of the face, maxillofacial bones and teeth in cases of mechanical injury, gunshot injuries, the effects of extreme temperatures and electricity, radiation injuries;
- forensic examination of damage caused by the teeth;
- identification of the person, age, sex, profession, place of prosthetics according to the dental status;
- forensic examination of professional offenses of dentists and other medical workers of dental institutions.
In foreign forensic dentistry, it has been repeatedly suggested that forensic dentistry should be considered as part of general dentistry (Keizer-Nielsen, etc.). Such a view is incorrect in historical terms, for injuries caused by human teeth, injuries of soft tissues, maxillofacial bones and teeth, personal identification by dental status, imprints and teeth marks, and many other problems of forensic dentistry have long been a subject of forensic research. medicine, while in dentistry they have not yet been reflected, the teaching of forensic medicine at dental faculties is being introduced in a number of countries at present.
There is no doubt that medical specialists took part in the development of individual problems of forensic dentistry. But in this case, they did not differ from the specialists of other medical professions (traumatologists, obstetrician-gynecologists, pathologists, etc.), who, within their knowledge, contributed to the development of forensic science and practice.
The interests of the development of modern medical science, the interests of the legal practice of society suggest that forensic dentistry should be an independent section of forensic medicine. There is no doubt that the future of this section is not conceived without the wide use of the achievements of modern dentistry, which in this case will be tested in expert activities. It must be assumed that the development of forensic dentistry will attract also medical specialists who will choose forensic medicine as a profession, adding to the staff of forensic experts.
In 1961, the Scandinavian Scientific Society of Forensic Dentists was founded in Denmark. The company set its goal to popularize forensic dentistry among dentists, forensic doctors and police officers, as well as to involve a wide range of specialists in the study of forensic dentistry problems. Dentists and forensic physicians from many countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and America are currently members of the society. The society publishes newsletters that highlight problems of forensic dentistry, information about congresses and congresses, as well as scientific and practical research on forensic and dental expertise and provides a bibliography of world literature on these issues.
Problems of forensic dentistry are constantly reflected in the work of international congresses and conferences in forensic medicine.
Forensic dentistry is introduced into the programs of higher and secondary dental educational institutions, textbooks and teaching aids are being published on these issues. Actively trained expert staff in forensic dentistry.