The population of the globe is constantly under the influence of various types of radiation. This is the so-called background radiation, which has two components: the natural background and generated by human technical activity - the man-made background.
The natural background is due to cosmic radiation and natural radioactive substances contained in the soil, the air, in the entire biosphere. The technogenic background is caused by the ever-increasing level of the use of atomic energy both for peaceful purposes and in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. The adverse effects of irradiation result from short-term high-intensity irradiation and from relatively long-term exposure to small doses.
The intensity of irradiation can increase on a large scale when testing nuclear weapons, accidents at nuclear reactors that lead to radioactive contamination of the area, to the accumulation of mainly strontium-90, cesium, other long-lived isotopes and a sharp increase in radiation levels.
The program for the destruction of nuclear weapons, the creation of a durable world without wars and violence is close and understandable to all people, especially doctors, as it corresponds to their moral and professional duty.
Scientific and practical achievements in the field of physics, chemistry and related sciences have opened up prospects for the use of ionizing radiation energy in industry, agriculture, biology and medicine. Radioisotopes and other sources of radiation are used in medical institutions for diagnosis and treatment; almost the entire population undergoes x-ray examination. Therefore, the assessment of the dose of radiation from various sources of radiation is very important, since it can affect the health of the population. In this regard, the issue of ensuring radiation safety and preventing the possibility of radiation damage has acquired particular relevance. Under this condition, on the instructions of the bodies of inquiry and investigation, it may be necessary to carry out relevant forensic investigations.
Irradiation most often occurs with alpha and beta particles, gamma rays , x-rays and neutrons. In space, radiation can be caused by the action of protons and other high-energy particles. Mixed irradiation is possible when different types of radiation energy are applied simultaneously. For example, in an atomic explosion or in case of accidents in nuclear reactors , gamma-neutron irradiation may occur.